e-Anatomy

Atlas of lower extremity anatomy

Authors

Antoine Micheau - MD , Denis Hoa - MD

Published on

Friday 22 December 2017

Section

Limbs

Anatomical parts

Atlas of lower extremity anatomy

This module contains 119 illustrations with 640 anatomical structures captioned.

 

This atlas of human anatomy is designed for students in medicine and particularly in preparing for the first year of medical studies (PCEM1), for pharmacological students preparing for the first year of pharmacology (PCEP1) and for health professionals (nursing students, physiotherapy, osteopathy, manipulative radiology, physicians, surgeons, radiologists) in orthopaedics, rheumatology, functional rehabilitation, radiology...

 

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Illustrations of the anatomy of the lower limb

The colour illustrations were created in vector format using Adobe Illustrator in order to be perfectly adapted to the web. These original anatomical drawings were produced by Dr. Antoine Micheau. They were then integrated into the module by Dr. Denis Hoa with the help of Adobe Flash.

This module is divided into several chapters:

 

  • Regions of the lower limb are illustrated by anterior and posterior views of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, tarsus, and toes of the feet allowing the visualisation of regions such as the gluteal region the femoral triangle (scarpa), the popliteal fossa, the sural region (calf), the ankle region, the dorsum of the foot and plantar region.

 

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  • The osteology of the lower limb is particularly detailed, with 3D view and patterns of bone structures and muscle insertions and ligaments of the hip bone, the femur, the patella, tibia, the fibula, tibial plateau, the tibial pilon, the foot (talus, calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges proximal, middle and distal). First, a posterior and anterior view of the lower limb skeleton allows the different joints (sacroiliac joint, hip joint, upper and lower tibio-fibular joint, joints of the foot) to be displayed.

 

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  • The chapter on the various joints of the lower limb displays the ligaments and articulatory structures:    
    • Articulations of the pelvic girdle with the sacroiliac, sacrospinous, sacrotuberous and sacrococcygeal ligaments delimiting the greater sciatic foramen and the less sciatic foramen
    • An anterolateral view of the hip joint showing the articular surface of the femoral head, the ligament of the femoral head, the acetabular labrum (cotyloid ligament), the orbicularis zone (annular ligament) and the insertion of the articulatory capsule.
    • A sagittal section of the knee joint to visualize the joint cavity with recesses, meniscal structures, ligaments and patellar arcuate popliteal, and bursa of the knee (infrapatellar bursa, subcutaneous...)
    • 4 anatomical drawings show the knee joint in anterior and posterior views with superficial and deep layers, describing the anatomy of the cruciate ligaments, menisci, collateral ligaments, the patellar ligament...
    • Finally, the user will find illustrations of anatomical joints of the ankle, tarsus, metatarsus and toes, including the tibial-fibular ligaments, the collateral ligaments of the ankle, the bifurcated ligament, the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament), the long plantar ligament and all the ligaments comprising the transverse tarsal joints (Chopart ligament), tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc ligaments) and ankle (talocrural joint).

 

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  • The myology of the lower limb is also particularly well represented in this atlas of anatomy, with multiple anatomical charts and diagrams:
    • The first diagram summarises the different muscular compartments (fascial compartments) of the thigh and leg, and the different fascias (crural fascia, intermuscular septum, interosseous membrane, adductor canal, fascia lata)
    • A diagram of the pelvis in medial view shows the muscles such as the psoas major, the iliac, piriformis and obturator internus muscles.
    • 3 illustrations of the anterior thigh region detail the anatomy of the femoral quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles), the gracilis, sartorius and the adductors.

 

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  • 4 diagrams of the posterior thigh and gluteal regions illustrate muscular structures such as the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus muscles as well as the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and quadrates femoris muscles
    • A side view of the muscles of the thigh shows the tensor fascia lata muscle and iliotibial tract.
    • A representation of the anterior region of the leg describes the tibialis anterior muscle and its tendon, the extensor digitorum longus and the extensor hallucis longus muscles.
    • 3 anatomical drawings of the posterior region of the leg allow the user to visualise the gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral head), the soleus, popliteus, plantar is and long and short peroneal muscles as well as the flexor muscle of the hallux and the flexor digitorum longus muscle.
    • A lateral view of the leg and anterior view of the ankle offer anatomical illustrations of the tendons of the long and short fibular muscles, the tendons of the extensor hallucis longs and all the tendons viewed at the dorsal surface of the foot. On this anatomical image it is also possible to visualise the extensor retinaculum.
    • 5 diagrams of the different muscle layers of the sole of the foot describe the muscle layers of the foot, from the most superficial (plantar aponeurosis, abductor hallucis muscle) to the deepest (quadratus plantæ, adductor hallucis and plantar interossei muscles).
    • A medial view of the ankle shows the retinacula of the flexors and extensors, the synovial sheaths and the relationship between the tendons and neurovascular structures located behind the medial malleolus.

 

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  • The chapter details the trajectory and branches of the internal iliac artery, the external iliac, primitive iliac, common femoral, deep and superficial popliteal arteries as well as the anterior tibial, posterior tibial, fibular (peroneal), dorsalis pedis and deep plantar arch arteries.

 

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  • Two diagrams describe the superficial venous vasculature of the thigh and leg (great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein).
  • A diagram shows the various inguinal lymph nodes (lymphatic ganglia).
  • The chapter on the innervation of the lower limb presents diagrams of the lumbosacral plexus and its main nerve branches for the lower limb (lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral nerve, sciatic nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh and obturator nerve). The dermatomes of the lower limb are visualised in anterior and posterior views, including the dermatomes of the saphenous nerve, sural nerve, cutaneous nerve and peroneal nerve.

 

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  • The last chapter of this human anatomy module presents anatomical sections of the lower limb, centring on the gluteal region, the thigh, the femoral region, a section of the popliteal fossa, anatomical sections of the leg, an axial section of the ankle, a frontal section of the tarsus area and a frontal section of the forefoot.

 

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Display of the anatomic captions of the lower limb and use of this online atlas of human anatomy
The "anatomical structures" tab allows the user to selectively display the captions of type: region, bones: skeletal system, joints, ligaments, muscles, muscular system, tendons, fascia, synovial bursa, arteries, veins, lymph nodes (ganglia) and nerves of the lower limb

 

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The "illustrations" tab provides access to individual chapters.

 

Language and terminology for the nomenclature of anatomical structures of the lower limb.

 

 The Terminologia Anatomica has been used by preference to caption all the anatomical structures, with a translation into English, French, Japanese, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Spanish.

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