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Anatomy of the autonomic nervous system

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

Published on Thursday 10 September 2009

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

 

Three anatomical diagrams are represented separately in this module. Indeed, the study of the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) tends to be conducted by studying its organs.

 

The three illustrations shown here and designed by Dr. Antoine Micheau are recapitulative diagrams of the functioning of the autonomic nervous system

 

Diagrams of the autonomic nervous system

 

These human anatomy vector diagrams were made using Adobe Illustrator and then integrated into the modules using Adobe Flash

  • The first diagram is a section of the autonomic nervous system, with the fibres issuing from the spinal nerve (white and grey communicating branch), the relations with the sympathetic trunk ganglia then with the visceral plexuses and visceral ganglia.

 

 

Autonomic division of nervous system; Autonomic part of peripheral nervous system - Schematic : Ganglion of sympathetic trunk,  Interganglionic branches,  Rami communicantes,  Grey ramus communicans,  White ramus communicans,  Intermediate ganglia, Sympathetic trunk, Peripheral autonomic plexuses and ganglia, Spinal nerve, Anatomy

Autonomic division of nervous system; Autonomic part of peripheral nervous system - Schematic

 

 

  • The second diagram brings together all the types of autonomic innervation of the face, thorax and abdominal-pelvic organs while detailing the ganglia (cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral) of the sympathetic trunk.

 

 

Autonomic division of nervous system; Autonomic part of peripheral nervous system (Sympathetic part/Parasympathetic part) : Human anatomy, Diagram, Cardiac ganglia Inferior cervical ganglion Middle cervical ganglion Superior cervical ganglion Cervicothoracic ganglion; Stellate ganglion Ciliary ganglion Ganglion impar Inferior mesenteric ganglion Superior mesenteric ganglion Otic ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Sublingual ganglion Submandibular ganglion Thoracic splanchnic ganglion Vertebral ganglion Aorticorenal ganglia Coeliac ganglia Ganglion of sympathetic trunk Intermediate ganglia Lumbar ganglia Pelvic ganglia Phrenic ganglia Renal ganglia Sacral ganglia Thoracic ganglia, Cardiac plexus, Coeliac plexus, Gastric plexuses, Hepatic plexus, Inferior hypogastric plexus; Pelvic plexus, Pulmonary plexus

Autonomic division of nervous system; Autonomic part of peripheral nervous system (Sympathetic part/Parasympathetic part)

 

 

  • The latter summarises the different sympathetic and parasympathetic structures of the head and face, (ciliary ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion, otic ganglion) as well as the branches communicating with the cranial nerves

 

 

Cranial nerves : Parasympathetic part / Sympathetic part - Anatomy/Illustrations : Ciliary ganglion, Otic ganglion, Pterygopalatine ganglion,  Sublingual ganglion,  Submandibular ganglion, Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion, Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion, Sensory root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Ganglionic branches of maxillary nerve to pteygopalatine ganglion, Sensory root of submandibular ganglion; Ganglionic branches to submandibular ganglion, Parasympathetic root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Greater petrosal nerve, Sympathetic root of ptertygopalatine ganglion; Deep petrosal nerve, Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion; Lesser petrosal nerve

Cranial nerves : Parasympathetic part / Sympathetic part


Anatomical parts

  • Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] - Nervus abducens [VI]
  • Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI]
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior ramus - Ramus anterior
  • Anterior root; Motor root; Ventral root - Radix anterior; Radix motoria
  • Aorticorenal ganglia - Ganglia aorticorenalia
  • Autonomic division of nervous system; Autonomic part of peripheral nervous system - Divisio autonomica; Pars autonomica systematis nervosi peripherici
  • Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion - Ramus ad ganglion ciliare;radix parasympathica ganglii ciliaris; Radix oculomotoria ganglii ciliaris
  • Bronchi - Bronchi
  • Cardiac plexus - Plexus cardiacus
  • Cerebellum - Cerebellum
  • Cervicothoracic ganglion; Stellate ganglion - Ganglion cervicothoracicum; Ganglion stellatum
  • Ciliary ganglion - Ganglion ciliare
  • Coeliac ganglia - Ganglia coeliaca
  • Cranial nerves - Nervi craniales
  • Cross section - Cross section
  • Diagram - Diagram
  • Digestive Tract - Digestive Tract
  • Face - Facies
  • Facial nerve [VII] - Nervus facialis [VII]
  • Gallbladder - Vesica biliaris
  • Ganglion impar - Ganglion impar
  • Ganglion of sympathetic trunk - Ganglion trunci sympathici
  • Genital organs - Genital organs
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Nervus glossopharyngeus [IX]
  • Greater splanchnic nerve - Nervus splanchnicus major
  • Grey ramus communicans - Ramus communicans griseus
  • Hair follicle - Folliculus pili
  • Heart - Cor
  • Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Nervus hypoglossus [XII]
  • Illustrations - Illustrations
  • Inferior cervical cardiac nerve - Nervus cardiacus cervicalis inferior
  • Inferior cervical ganglion - Ganglion cervicale inferioris
  • Inferior hypogastric plexus; Pelvic plexus - Plexus hypogastricus inferior; Plexus pelvicus
  • Inferior mesenteric ganglion - Ganglion mesentericum inferius
  • Interganglionic branches - Rami interganglionares
  • Internal carotid nerve - Nervus caroticus internus
  • Internal carotid plexus - Plexus caroticus internus
  • Lacrimal gland - Glandula lacrimalis
  • Laryngopharyngeal branches - Rami laryngopharyngei
  • Larynx - Larynx
  • Least splanchnic nerve; Lowest splanchnic nerve - Nervus splanchnicus imus
  • Lesser splanchnic nerve - Nervus splanchnicus minor
  • Liver - Hepar
  • Lumbar ganglia - Ganglia lumbalia
  • Lumbar splanchnic nerves - Nervi splanchnici lumbales
  • Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3] - Nervus mandibularis [Vc; V3]
  • Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Nervus maxillaris[Vb; V2]
  • Middle cervical cardiac nerve - Nervus cardiacus cervicalis medius
  • Middle cervical ganglion - Ganglion cervicale medium
  • Oculomotor nerve [III] - Nervus oculomotorius [III]
  • Oesophageal branches - Rami oesophageales
  • Oesophageal plexus - Plexus oesophageus
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Nervus ophthalmicus [Va; V1]
  • Organs - Organs
  • Ostium primum - Ren; Nephros
  • Otic ganglion - Ganglion oticum
  • Pancreas - Pancreas
  • Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion; Lesser petrosal nerve - Radix parasympathica; Nervus petrosus minor
  • Parasympathetic root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Greater petrosal nerve - Radix parasympathica pterygopalatini; Nervus petrosus major
  • Parasympathetic root; Chorda tympani - Radix parasympathica; Chorda tympani
  • Parasympathetic root; Pelvic splanchnic nerves - Radix parasympathica; Nervi splanchnici pelvici
  • Parotid gland - Glandula parotidea
  • Peripheral autonomic plexuses and ganglia - Plexus viscerales et ganglia visceralia
  • Posterior root; Sensory root; Dorsal root - Radix posterior; Radix sensoria
  • Prostate - Prostata
  • Pterygopalatine ganglion - Ganglion pterygopalatinum
  • Pulmonary plexus - Plexus pulmonalis
  • Sacral ganglia - Ganglia sacralia
  • Sacral splanchnic nerves - Nervi splanchnici sacrales
  • Sensory root of ciliary ganglion; Nasociliary root of ciliary ganglion; Communicating branch of nasociliary nerve with ciliary ganglion - Radix sensoria ganglii ciliaris; Radix nasociliaris ganglii ciliaris; Ramus communicans nervus nasociliaris cum ganglio ciliare
  • Sensory root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Ganglionic branches of maxillary nerve to pteygopalatine ganglion - Radix sensoria ganglii pterygopalatini; Rami ganglionares nervus maxillaris ad ganglion pterygopalatinum
  • Sensory root of submandibular ganglion; Ganglionic branches to submandibular ganglion - Radix sensoria ganglii submandibularis; Rami ganglionares nervus lingualis ad ganglion nervus mandibulare
  • Short ciliary nerves - Nervi ciliares breves
  • Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis
  • Spinal ganglion; Dorsal root ganglion - Ganglion sensorium nervi spinalis
  • Stomach - Gaster
  • Sublingual gland - Glandula sublingualis
  • Submandibular ganglion - Ganglion submandibulare
  • Submandibular gland - Glandula submandibularis
  • Superior cervical cardiac nerve - Nervus cardiacus cervicalis superior
  • Superior cervical ganglion - Ganglion cervicale superius
  • Superior hypogastric plexus; Presacral nerve - Plexus hypogastricus superior; Nervus presacralis
  • Superior mesenteric ganglion - Ganglion mesentericum superius
  • Suprarenal gland; Adrenal gland - Glandula suprarenalis
  • Sweat gland - Glandula sudorifera
  • Sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion - Radix sympathica ganglii ciliaris
  • Sympathetic root of ptertygopalatine ganglion; Deep petrosal nerve - Radix sympathica ganglii pterygopalatini; Nervus petrosus profundus
  • Sympathetic trunk - Truncus sympathicus
  • Thoracic cardiac branches - Rami cardiaci thoracici
  • Thoracic ganglia - Ganglia thoracica
  • Thoracic pulmonary branches - Rami pulmonales thoracici
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Trigeminal nerve [V] - Nervus trigeminus [V]
  • Trochlear nerve [IV] - Nervus trochlearis [IV]
  • Urinary bladder - Vesica urinaria
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Vessels - Vessels
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] - Nervus vestibulocochlearis [VIII]
  • White ramus communicans - Ramus communicans albus

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