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Anatomy of the brain (MRI) - cross-sectional atlas of human anatomy

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

In 2009 we decided to redesign the module on the anatomy of the brain based on MRI with axial slices, having received multiple requests from users for coronal and sagittal slices. Preparation of this new module took more than 6 months, and involved labeling more than 524 structures on 353 MRI images in three different views and on 26 anatomical diagrams.  
This module is intended for all physicians and non-physicians with an interest in neuroanatomy and medical imaging, and particularly for general practitioners and specialists in neurology, neurosurgery, anatomy and neurosciences, as well as speech pathologists and psychomotor therapists.

 

Anatomy of the encephalon in MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal slices)

Anatomy of the encephalon in MRI (axial, coronal and sagittal slices)

 

Cerebral images used for this module on human anatomy

 

An MRI was performed in thin slices (0.6 mm) on a healthy individual, with volumetric 3D imaging using T1 weighting without injection of gadolinium in the three customary views, with a matrix of 320/320 pixels, using a 1.3 Tesla MRI machine.

Brain - Coronal section:Basal nuclei and related structures, Corpus callosum, Septum pellucidum

Brain - Coronal section

 

A time-of-flight MR angiogram of the circle of Willis was performed and a venous MR angiogram by phase contrast was also performed on the same subject at a different time.
The slice images were resized and cropped using Adobe Photoshop, and then integrated into a module created with Adobe Flash. To facilitate data download, the images were compressed in jpeg format, but the “HQ” function allows the user to download the images in optimal quality (noting that the starting matrix is still 320/320 pixels).
Second, 3D image reconstructions for the brain, the ventricles, the brainstem, the cerebellum, the cerebral arteries and the venous sinuses were created from images in slices by means of a DICOM reconstruction console.

 

Cerebral sulci - Longitudinal cerebral fissure

Cerebral sulci

 

It should be noted that the reconstructions were based on images on the same patient, which lets the user correlate imaging in slices with 3D imaging of the human brain. In addition, some of the reconstructions were minimally retouched using Adobe Photoshop in order to improve their didactic value and to remove certain artifacts, but no structure of any kind was added artificially (thus, for example, the cranial nerves are only visible on the brainstem images). For more complete diagrams, we would recommend the module on brain anatomy in illustrations.

 

Profiling cerebral anatomic zones

 

Several types of profiles were created for both the slices and the 3D images:

  • Cerebral lobes: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, insula, limbic system (note that the limbic system is a functional unit that links parts of other lobes, and thus, zones are superimposed).
Cerebral lobes

Cerebral lobes

 

  • Cerebellar lobes: Anterior lobe of the cerebellum, posterior lobe of the cerebellum, and the flocculonodular lobe
  • Brainstem: Mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata (bulb, myelencephalon)
  • Levels of the central nervous system: telencephalon, diencephalon (divided into the thalamus, hypothalamus, metathalamus, epithalamus and subthalamus), rhombencephalon, and the spinal cord.
  • Association fibers of the telencephalon: Uncinate fasciculus, Superior (arched) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus, caudal and lingual fibers, Note: this outline was created using data which have been continuously updated since accession of the images using tensor diffusion imaging, and as a result, these representations could be improved.

 

Brain - White matter : Association fibres of telencephalon, Superior longitudinal fasciculus; Arcuate fasciculus

Brain - White matter

 

  • Arterial vascular territories: This part is difficult to summarize, since it applies to anatomic territories as well as to clinical syndromes (ischemic cerebrovascular accidents), and thus we only included the principal territories: superficial and deep territories of the middle and anterior cerebral arteries, territory of the posterior cerebral artery, junctional cortical territories and deep anterior choroidal artery territory, territory of the posterior communicating artery, territory of the superior (SCA), anterior (AICA), and posterior (PICA) cerebellar arteries, territory of branches of the basilar artery, territory of branches of the vertebral artery and the anterior spinal artery.

 

 

Vasculary territories - Brain

Vasculary territories - Brain

 

Anatomical structures captioned:

 

In order to facilitate the reading of the module, the structures of the human brain have been classified into groups and subgroups that can be displayed selectively:

  • Cerebral lobes and regions of the brain, brain stem and cerebellum
  • Cerebrum with the various lobes, the cerebral commissural fibres (corpus callosum, fornix, tapetum, forceps), association fibres of the cerebrum, basal nuclei and related structures (basal ganglia, pallidum, lenticular nucleus, putamen, internal and external capsules...), basal forebrain (with olfactory striae, the amygdalo-claustrum region, the amygdaloid body, the anterior perforated substance), and finally the Brodmann area (note that the classification is dated by a century and is often questioned and that, moreover, the numerical nomenclature is stable but by contrast the literal designation of Brodmann areas is subject to multiple variations).

 

Cerebral cortex: Brodmann areas

Brodmann areas

 

  • Diencephalon including notably the thalamus, the pulvinar nuclei, the habenula, the pineal gland, the infundibulum (formerly the pituitary stalk) and the neurohypophysis (the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland not forming part of the central nervous system).

 

Anatomy of the brain (MRI)

Anatomy of the brain (MRI)

 

  • Cerebellum with its various fissures and lobes as well as the structures of the cerebellar vermis.
Cerebellum: Cerebellar fissures, Vermis of cerebellum [I-X], Hemisphere of cerebellum [H II - H X]

Cerebellum

 

  • The brain stem, subdivided into midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata (bulb, myelencephalon).

 

Brainstem: Pons, Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulb,

Brainstem

 

  • The cranial nerves at the level of their emergence, and the cranial nerve nuclei with a projection of their supposed position on the brain stem.
  • The brain ventricles (lateral ventricles, third ventricle, fourth ventricle) with the choroid plexus.

 

Lateral ventricle, Third ventricle, Fourth ventricle, Aqueduct of midbrain; Cerebral aqueduct

Lateral ventricle, Third ventricle, Fourth ventricle, Aqueduct of midbrain; Cerebral aqueduct

 

  • The meninges with sacs containing the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) but also the different layers and pericerebral spaces (of course, the dura mater, the pia mater, the arachnoid and the spaces between them are very difficult to identify in a healthy subject and the positioning of legends here is approximate).
  • The arteries of encephalic destination emerging from the internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries and forming the circle of Willis (arterial circle of the brain). It should be noted that this MRI is without gadolinium injection; the large arteries are visible by hyperintense flow phenomenon but the small arteries are not visible and we have preferred not to caption them.

 

Cerebral arterial circle (Willis): Superior aspect; Vertical aspect

Cerebral arterial circle (Willis): Superior aspect; Vertical aspect

 

  • The main deep and superficial, diploid and emissary veins (subject to the same restrictions as arteries on this MRI without injection), as well as the various venous sinuses (superior sagittal sinus and lower sigmoid sinus, straight sinus, cavernous sinus, lower and upper petrosal sinus).

 

Dural venous sinuses: Superior sagittal sinus, Cavernous sinus, Sigmoid sinus

Dural venous sinuses

 

Visualisation of MRI and 3D brain images

 

The "plans" tab provides access to groups of images (axial, coronal, sagittal and 3D image series), but the images on the left can be accessed directly by a simple click.

 

The anatomy of the brain in several languages

 

The anatomical structures are all translated from the Terminologia Anatomica into English, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Czech and Japanese.
The translation into Chinese and German is incomplete but in the course of being validated.
It should be noted that the neuroanatomical and radioanatomical vocabulary can vary, depending on the structures and languages, and that therefore we applied the Terminologia Anatomica to the maximum extent possible.


Anatomical parts

  • 3D - 3D
  • Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] - Nervus abducens [VI]
  • Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI]
  • Accessory nuclei of oculomotor nerve - Nuclei accessorii nervi oculomotorii
  • Alveus - Alveus hippocampi
  • Amygdaloclaustral area - Area amygdaloclaustralis
  • Amygdalohippocampal area - Area parahippocampalis
  • Amygdaloid body; Amygdaloid complex - Corpus amygdaloideum
  • Amygdalopiriform transition area - Area transitionis amygdalopiriformis
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Angular gyrus - Gyrus angularis
  • Anterior amygdaloid area - Area amygdaloidea anterior
  • Anterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri anterior
  • Anterior cerebral veins - Venae anteriores cerebri
  • Anterior choroidal artery - Arteria choroidea anterior
  • Anterior cochlear nucleus; Ventral cochlear nucleus - Nucleus cochlearis anterior
  • Anterior commissure - Commissura anterior
  • Anterior communicating artery - Arteria communicans anterior
  • Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) - Arteria inferior anterior cerebelli
  • Anterior intercavernous sinus - Sinus intercavernosus anterior
  • Anterior limb of internale capsule - Crus anterius capsulae internae
  • Anterior lobe of cerebellum - Lobus cerebelli anterior
  • Anterior median fissure; Ventral median fissure - Fissura mediana anterior
  • Anterior paracentral gyrus - Gyrus paracentralis anterior
  • Anterior part; Ventral part [H IV] - Pars anterior; Pars ventralis [H IV]
  • Anterior part; Ventral part [II] - Pars anterior; Pars ventralis [II]
  • Anterior part; Ventral part [IV] - Pars anterior; Pars ventralis [IV]
  • Anterior perforated substance - Substantia perforata anterior; Substantia perforata rostralis
  • Anterior quadrangular lobule [H IV and H V] - Lobulus quadrangularis anterior [H IV et H V]
  • Anterior ramus - Ramus anterior
  • Anterior temporal artery - Arteria temporalis anterior
  • Anterior temporal diploic vein - Vena diploica temporalis anterior
  • Anterolateral medullary vein - Vena medullaris anterolateralis
  • Anterolateral pontine vein - Vena pontis anterolateralis
  • Anterolateral sulcus; Ventrolateral sulcus - Sulcus anterolateralis
  • Anteromedian medullary vein - Vena medullaris anteromediana
  • Anteromedian pontine vein - Vena pontis anteromediana
  • Aqueduct of midbrain; Cerebral aqueduct - Aqueductus mesencephali; Aqueductus cerebri
  • Arachnoid granulations - Granulationes arachnoideae
  • Arachnoid mater - Arachnoidea mater
  • Arbor vitae - Arbor vitae
  • Area 10 - Anterior prefrontal cortex - Area 10 - area frontopolaris
  • Area 11 - Orbitofrontal area - Area 11 - area praefrontalis
  • Area 12 - Orbitofrontal area - Area 12 - area praefrontalis
  • Area 13 - Insular cortex - Area 13
  • Area 17 - Primary visual cortex (V1) - Area 17 - area striata
  • Area 18 - Secondary visual cortex (V2) - Area 18 - area parastriata
  • Area 19 - Associative visual cortex (V3) - Area 19 - area peristriata
  • Area 20 - Inferior temporal gyrus - Area 20 - area temporalis inferior
  • Area 21 - Middle temporal gyrus - Area 21 - area temporalis media
  • Area 22 - Superior temporal gyrus - Area 22 - area temporalis superior
  • Area 23 - Ventral Posterior cingulate cortex - Area 23 - area cingularis posterior ventralis
  • Area 24 - Ventral Anterior cingulate cortex - Area 24 - area cingularis anterior ventralis
  • Area 25 - Subgenual cortex - Area 25 - area subgenualis
  • Area 26 - Ectosplenial area - Area 26 - area ectosplenialis
  • Area 28 - Posterior Entorhinal Cortex - Area 28 - area entorhinalis
  • Area 29 - Retrosplenial cingulate cortex - Area 29 - area retrolimbica granularis
  • Area 30 - Part of cingulate cortex - Area 30 - area retrolimbica agranularis
  • Area 31 - Dorsal Posterior cingulate cortex - Area 31 - area cingularis posterior dorsalis
  • Area 32 - Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex - Area 32 - area cingularis anterior dorsalis
  • Area 33 - Part of anterior cingulate cortex - Area 33 - area praegenualis
  • Area 34 - Anterior Entorhinal Cortex (on the Parahippocampal gyrus) - Area 34 - area entorhinalis dorsalis
  • Area 35 - Perirhinal cortex - Area 35 - area perirhinalis
  • Area 36 - Parahippocampal cortex - Area 36 - area ectorhinalis
  • Area 37 - Fusiform gyrus - Area 37 - area occipitotemporalis
  • Area 38 - Temporopolar area - Area 38 - area temporopolaris
  • Area 39 - Angular gyrus - Area 39 - area angularis
  • Area 4 - Primary Motor Cortex - Area 4 - area gigantopyramidalis
  • Area 40 - Supramarginal gyrus - Area 40 - area supramarginalis
  • Area 41 - Primary and Auditory Association Cortex - Area 41 - area temporalis transversa anterior
  • Area 42 - Primary and Auditory Association Cortex - Area 42 - area temporalis transversa posterior
  • Area 43 - Subcentral area - Area 43 - area subcentralis
  • Area 44 - Pars opercularis, - Area 44 - area opercularis
  • Area 45 - Pars triangularis - Area 45 - area triangularis
  • Area 46 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - Area 46 - area frontalis media
  • Area 47 - Inferior prefrontal gyrus - Area 47 - area orbitalis
  • Area 48 - Retrosubicular area - Area 48 - area retrosubicularis
  • Area 5 - Somatosensory Association Cortex - Area 5 - area praeparietalis
  • Area 52 - Parainsular area - Area 52 - area parainsularis
  • Area 6 - Premotor cortex - Area 6 - area frontalis agranularis
  • Area 7 - Somatosensory Association Cortex - Area 7 - area parietalis superior
  • Area 8 - Frontal eye fields - Area 8 - area frontalis intermedia
  • Area 9 - Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - Area 9 - area frontalis granularis
  • Areas 1-2-3 - Primary Somatosensory Cortex - Area 1-2-3
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Ascending ramus - Ramus ascendens
  • Association fibres of telencephalon - Fibrae associationis telencephali
  • Atlantic part - Pars atlantica
  • Atrium - Atrium
  • Axial - Axialis
  • Basal forebrain - Pars basalis telencephali
  • Basal nuclei and related structures - Nuclei basales et structurae pertinentes
  • Basal vein - Vena basalis
  • Basilar artery - Arteria basilaris
  • Basilar part of pons - Pars basilaris pontis
  • Basilar plexus - Plexus basilaris
  • Basilar sulcus - Sulcus basilaris
  • Body of caudate nucleus - Corpus nuclei caudati
  • Body of fornix - Corpus fornicis
  • Brachium of inferior colliculus - Brachium colliculi inferioris
  • Brachium of superior colliculus - Brachium colliculi superioris
  • Brain - Cerebrumstem - Truncus encephali
  • Brodmann areas - Brodmann areas
  • Bulb of occipital horn - Bulbus cornus posterioris
  • Calcarine spur - Calcar avis
  • Calcarine sulcus - Sulcus calcarinus
  • Callosomarginal artery - Arteria callosomarginalis
  • Carotid syphon - Siphon caroticum
  • Caudal fibres - Fibrae caudales
  • Caudolenticular grey bridges; Transcapsular grey bridges - Pontes grisei caudatolenticulares
  • Cave of septum pellucidum - Cavum septi pellucidi
  • Cavernous part - Pars cavernosa
  • Cavernous sinus - Sinus cavernosus
  • Central canal - Canalis centralis
  • Central lobule [II and III] - Lobulus centralis [II et III]
  • Central part of lateral ventricle; Body of lateral ventricle - Pars centralis ventriculi lateralis
  • Central sulcus - Sulcus centralis
  • Central sulcus of insula - Sulcus centralis insulae
  • Cerebellar commissure - Commissura cerebelli
  • Cerebellar fissures - Fissurae cerebelli
  • Cerebellar tentorium - Tentorium cerebelli
  • Cerebellopontine angle - Angulus pontocerebellaris
  • Cerebellum - Cerebellum
  • Cerebral crus - Crus cerebri
  • Cerebral falx - Falx cerebri
  • Cerebral lobes - Lobi cerebri/Regions - Regiones
  • Cerebral peduncle - Pedunculus cerebri
  • Cerebral sulci - Sulci cerebri
  • Cervical part - Pars cervicalis
  • Cervical part - Pars transversaria; Pars cervicalis
  • Chiasmatic cistern - Cisterna chiasmatica
  • Choroid enlargement - Glomus choroideum
  • Choroid line - Taenia choroidea
  • Choroid plexus - Plexus choroideus
  • Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle - Plexus choroideus ventriculi quarti
  • Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle - Plexus choroideus ventriculi lateralis
  • Choroid plexus of third ventricle - Plexus choroideus ventriculi tertii
  • Choroidal fissure - Fissura choroidea
  • Cingulate gyrus - Gyrus cinguli
  • Cingulate sulcus - Sulcus cinguli
  • Cingulum - Cingulum
  • Circular sulcus of insula - Sulcus circularis insulae
  • Cistern of lamina terminalis - Cisterna laminae terminalis
  • Cistern of lateral cerebral fossa - Cisterna fossae lateralis cerebri
  • Cisterna ambiens; Ambient cistern - Cisterna ambiens
  • Claustrum - Claustrum
  • Collateral eminence - Eminentia collateralis
  • Collateral sulcus - Sulcus collateralis
  • Collateral trigone - Trigonum collaterale
  • Column of fornix - Columna (fornix)
  • Commissural fibres of telencephalon - Fibrae commissurales telencephali
  • Commissure of fornix - Commissura fornicis
  • Condylar emissary vein - Vena emissaria condylaris
  • Confluence of sinuses - Confluens sinuum
  • Corona radiata - Corona radiata
  • Coronal - Coronalis
  • Cortical vascular watershed zone - Cortical border zone
  • Cranial dura mater - Dura mater cranialis; Dura mater encephali
  • Cranial nerve - Nervus cranialis
  • Cranial nerves - Nervi craniales
  • Cranial pia mater - Pia mater cranialis; Pia mater encephali
  • Crus of fornix - Crus fornicis
  • Culmen [IV et V] - Culmen [IV et V]
  • Cuneate fasciculus - Fasciculus cuneatus
  • Cuneate tubercle - Tuberculum cuneatum
  • Cuneus - Cuneus
  • Cuneus fibres - Fibrae cuneatae
  • Declive [VI] - Declive [VI]
  • Deep cerebral veins - Venae profundae cerebri
  • Deep middle cerebral vein - Vena media profunda cerebri
  • Deep white matter vascular watershed zone - Internal border zone
  • Dentate gyrus - Gyrus dentatus
  • Dentate nucleus; Nucleus lateralis cerebelli - Nucleus dentatus; Nucleus lateralis cerebelli
  • Diagonal band - Stria diagonalis
  • Diaphragma sellae; Sellar diaphragm - Diaphragma sellae
  • Diencephalon - Diencephalon
  • Diploic veins - Venae diploicae
  • Dorsal medullary veins - Venae medullares dorsales
  • Emissary veins - Venae emissariae
  • Epithalamus - Epithalamus
  • External capsule - Capsula externa
  • Extradural space; Epidural space (virtual) - Spatium epidurale; Spatium extradurale
  • Extreme capsule - Capsula extrema
  • Facial nerve [VII] - Nervus facialis [VII]
  • Falx cerebelli; Cerebellar falx - Falx cerebelli
  • Fasciolar gyrus - Gyrus fasciolaris
  • Fastigium - Fastigium
  • Fimbria of hippocampus - Fimbria hippocampi
  • Fimbriodentate sulcus - Sulcus fimbriodentatus
  • Flocculonodular lobe - Lobus flocculonodularis
  • Flocculus [H X] - Flocculus [H X]
  • Folium of vermis [VII A] - Folium vermis [VII A]
  • Foramen - Foramen caecum of medulla oblongata - Foramen - Foramen caecum medullae oblongatae
  • Fourth ventricle - Ventriculus quartus
  • Frenulum veli - Frenulum veli
  • Frontal diploic vein - Vena diploica frontalis
  • Frontal horn of lateral ventricle; Anterior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu anterius ventriculi lateralis
  • Frontal lobe - Lobus frontalis
  • Frontal operculum - Operculum frontale
  • Frontal pole - Polus frontalis
  • Frontal veins - Venae frontales
  • Genu of corpus callosum - Genu corporis callosi
  • Genu of internal capsule - Genu capsulae internae
  • Globus pallidus lateral segment; Globus pallidus external segment; External globus pallidus - Globus pallidus lateralis
  • Globus pallidus medial segment; Globus pallidus internal segment - Globus pallidus medialis
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Nervus glossopharyngeus [IX]
  • Gracile fasciculus - Fasciculus gracilis
  • Gracile lobule; Paramedian lobule [H VII B] - Lobulus gracilis; Lobulus paramedianus [H VII B]
  • Gracile tubercle - Tuberculum gracile
  • Great cerebral vein - Vena magna cerebri
  • Habenula - Habenula
  • Habenular commissure - Commissura habenularum
  • Habenular sulcus - Sulcus habenularis
  • Habenular trigone - Trigonum habenulare
  • Head of caudate nucleus - Caput nuclei caudati
  • Hemisphere of cerebellum [H II - H X] - Hemispherium cerebelli [H II - H X]
  • Hide all - Hide all
  • Hippocampal sulcus - Sulcus hippocampalis
  • Hippocampus - Hippocampus
  • Horizontal fissure; Intercrural fissure - Fissurae horizontalis; Fissura intercruralis
  • Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Nervus hypoglossus [XII]
  • Hypothalamic sulcus - Sulcus hypothalamicus
  • Hypothalamus - Hypothalamus
  • Inferior anastomotic vein - Vena anastomotica inferior
  • Inferior cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris inferior
  • Inferior colliculus - Colliculus inferior
  • Inferior fovea - Fovea inferior
  • Inferior frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis inferior
  • Inferior frontal sulcus - Sulcus frontalis inferior
  • Inferior longitudinal fasciculus - Fasciculus longitudinalis inferior
  • Inferior medullary velum - Velum medullare inferius
  • Inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus - Fasciculus occipitofrontalis inferior
  • Inferior olive - Oliva
  • Inferior parietal lobule - Lobulus parietalis inferior
  • Inferior petrosal sinus - Sinus petrosus inferior
  • Inferior sagittal sinus - Sinus sagittalis inferior
  • Inferior salivatory nucleus - Nucleus salivatorius inferior
  • Inferior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; Second crus of ansiform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] - Lobulus semilunaris inferior; Crus secundum lobuli ansiformis cerebelli[H VII A]
  • Inferior temporal gyrus - Gyrus temporalis inferior
  • Inferior temporal sulcus - Sulcus temporalis inferior
  • Inferior vein of vermis - Vena inferior vermis
  • Inferior veins of cerebellar hemisphere - Venae inferiores cerebelli
  • Inferior vestibular nucleus - Nucleus vestibularis inferior
  • Infundibular recess - Recessus infundibuli; Recessus infundibularis
  • Infundibulum - Infundibulum
  • Insula; Insular lobe - Insula; Lobus insularis
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna
  • Internal carotid venous plexus - Plexus venosus caroticus internus
  • Internal cerebral veins - Venae internae cerebri
  • Internal features - Morphologia interna
  • Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Interpeduncular cistern - Cisterna interpeduncularis
  • Interpeduncular fossa - Fossa interpeduncularis
  • Interpeduncular veins - Venae interpedunculares
  • Interthalamic adhesion - Adhesio interthalamica
  • Interventricular foramen - Foramen - Foramen interventriculare
  • Intrabiventral fissure; Anterior inferior fissure - Fissura intrabiventralis; Fissura anterior inferior
  • Intracranial part - Pars intracranialis
  • Intraculminate fissure - Fissura intraculminalis
  • Intraparietal sulcus - Sulcus intraparietalis
  • Isthmus of cingulate gyrus - Isthmus gyri cinguli
  • Lacrimal nucleus - Nucleus lacrimalis
  • Lamina affixa - Lamina affixa
  • Lamina of septum pellucidum - Lamina septi pellucidi
  • Lamina terminalis - Lamina terminalis
  • Lateral aperture - Apertura lateralis
  • Lateral cerebellomedullary cistern - Cisterna cerebellomedullaris lateralis
  • Lateral cerebral fossa - Fossa lateralis cerebri
  • Lateral fibres - Fibrae laterales
  • Lateral geniculate body - Corpus geniculatum laterale
  • Lateral groove - Sulcus lateralis mesencephali
  • Lateral medullary lamina; External medullary lamina - Lamina medullaris lateralis; Lamina medullaris externa
  • Lateral mesencephalic vein - Vena mesencephalica lateralis
  • Lateral occipital artery; P3 segment - Arteria occipitalis lateralis; Segmentum P3
  • Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus - Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis
  • Lateral olfactory gyrus - Gyrus olfactorius lateralis
  • Lateral part; Pars copularis [H VIII A] - Pars lateralis lobuli biventralis; Pars copularis lobuli paramediani[H VIII A]
  • Lateral recess - Recessus lateralis
  • Lateral stria - Stria olfactoria lateralis
  • Lateral sulcus - Sulcus lateralis
  • Lateral ventricle - Ventriculus lateralis
  • Lateral vestibular nucleus - Nucleus vestibularis lateralis
  • Lentiform nucleus; Lenticular nucleus - Nucleus lentiformis
  • Limbic lobe - Lobus limbicus
  • Limen insulae; Insular threshold - Limen insulae
  • Lingual fibres - Fibrae linguales
  • Lingual gyrus - Gyrus lingualis
  • Lingula of cerebellum [I] - Lingula cerebelli [I]
  • Long gyrus of insula - Gyrus longus insulae
  • Longitudinal cerebral fissure - Fissura longitudinalis cerebri
  • Lunogracile fissure; Ansoparamedian fissure - Fissura lunogracilis; Fissura ansoparamedianis
  • Major forceps; Occipital forceps - Forceps major; Forceps occipitalis
  • Mammillary body - Corpus mammillare
  • Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3] - Nervus mandibularis [Vc; V3]
  • Marginal branch; Marginal sulcus - Ramus marginalis; Sulcus marginalis
  • Marginal sinus - Sinus marginalis
  • Mastoid emissary vein - Vena emissaria mastoidea
  • Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Nervus maxillaris[Vb; V2]
  • Medial Part; Dorsal parafloccularis H VIII B - Pars medialis lobuli biventralis; Lobulus parafloccularis dorsalis H VIII B
  • Medial eminence - Eminentia medialis
  • Medial frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis medialis
  • Medial frontobasal artery; Medial orbitofrontal artery - Arteria frontobasalis medialis; Arteria orbitofrontalis medialis
  • Medial geniculate body - Corpus geniculatum mediale
  • Medial medullary lamina; Internal medullary lamina - Lamina medullaris medialis; Lamina medullaris interna
  • Medial occipital artery; P4 segment - Arteria occipitalis medialis; Segmentum P4
  • Medial occipitotemporal gyrus - Gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis
  • Medial olfactory gyrus - Gyrus olfactorius medialis
  • Medial stria - Stria olfactoria medialis
  • Medial vestibular nucleus - Nucleus vestibularis medialis
  • Median aperture - Apertura mediana
  • Median sulcus - Sulcus medianus
  • Medullopontine sulcus - Sulcus bulbopontinus
  • Meninges - Meninges
  • Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve - Nucleus mesencephalicus nervi trigemini
  • Mesencephalon; Midbrain - Mesencephalon
  • Metathalamus - Metathalamus
  • Middle cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris medius
  • Middle cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri media
  • Middle frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis medius
  • Middle temporal gyrus - Gyrus temporalis medius
  • Minor forceps; Frontal forceps - Forceps minor; Forceps frontalis
  • Motor nucleus of facial nerve - Nucleus nervi facialis
  • Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve - Nucleus motorius nervi trigemini
  • Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulb - Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulbus
  • Neurohypophysis; Posterior lobe - Neurohypophysis; Lobus posterior
  • Nodule [X] - Nodulus [X]
  • Nuclei of solitary tract; Solitary nuclei - Nuclei tractus solitarii
  • Nucleus ambiguus - Nucleus ambiguus
  • Nucleus of abducens nerve - Nucleus nervi abducentis
  • Nucleus of accessory nerve - Nucleus nervi accessorii
  • Nucleus of cranial nerve - Nucleus nervi cranialis
  • Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve - Nucleus nervi hypoglossi
  • Nucleus of oculomotor nerve - Nucleus nervi oculomotorii
  • Nucleus of trochlear nerve - Nucleus nervi trochlearis
  • Obex - Obex
  • Occipital diploic vein - Vena diploica occipitalis
  • Occipital emissary vein - Vena emissaria occipitalis
  • Occipital horn of lateral ventricle; Posterior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu occipitale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu posterius ventriculi lateralis
  • Occipital lobe - Lobus occipitalis
  • Occipital pole - Polus occipitalis
  • Occipital sinus - Sinus occipitalis
  • Occipital veins - Venae occipitales
  • Occipitotemporal sulcus - Sulcus occipitotemporalis
  • Oculomotor nerve [III] - Nervus oculomotorius [III]
  • Oculomotor sulcus - Sulcus nervi oculomotorii
  • Olfactory bulb - Bulbus olfactorius
  • Olfactory nerve [I] - Nervus olfactorius [I]
  • Olfactory sulcus - Sulcus olfactorius
  • Olfactory tract - Tractus olfactorius
  • Olfactory trigone - Trigonum olfactorium
  • Opening of aqueduct of midbrain; Opening of cerebral aqueduct - Apertura aqueductus mesencephali; Apertura aqueductus cerebri
  • Opercular part - Pars opercularis
  • Ophthalmic artery - Arteria ophthalmica
  • Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Nervus ophthalmicus [Va; V1]
  • Optic chiasma - Chiasma opticum
  • Optic nerve [II] - Nervus opticus [II]
  • Optic tract - Tractus opticus
  • Orbital gyri - Gyri orbitales
  • Orbital part - Pars orbitalis
  • Orbital sulci - Sulci orbitales
  • Paracentral lobule - Lobulus paracentralis
  • Paracentral sulcus - Sulcus paracentralis
  • Parahippocampal gyrus - Gyrus parahippocampalis
  • Paraolfactory area - Area paraolfactoria
  • Paraolfactory gyri - Gyri paraolfactorii
  • Paraolfactory sulci - Sulci paraolfactorii
  • Paraterminal gyrus - Gyrus paraterminalis
  • Parietal emissary vein - Vena emissaria parietalis
  • Parietal lobe - Lobus parietalis
  • Parietal operculum - Operculum parietale
  • Parietal veins - Venae parietales
  • Parietooccipital sulcus - Sulcus parietooccipitalis
  • Pars insularis; Segmentum M2 - Insular part; M2 segment
  • Peduncle of flocculus - Pedunculus flocculi
  • Pericallosal artery - Arteria pericallosa
  • Pericallosal cistern - Cisterna pericallosa
  • Pes - Pes hippocampi
  • Petrosal vein - Vena petrosa
  • Petrous part - Pars petrosa
  • Pineal gland - Glandula pinealis
  • Pineal recess - Recessus pinealis
  • Pituitary gland - Hypophysis; Glandula pituitaria
  • Planes - Planes
  • Polar frontal artery - Arteria polaris frontalis
  • Polar temporal artery - Arteria polaris temporalis
  • Pons - Pons
  • Pontocerebellar cistern - Cisterna pontocerebellaris
  • Pontomesencephalic vein - Vena pontomesencephalica
  • Postcentral gyrus - Gyrus postcentralis
  • Postcentral sulcus - Sulcus postcentralis
  • Postcommunicating part; A2 segment - Pars postcommunicalis; Segmentum A2
  • Postcommunicating part; P2 segment - Pars postcommunicalis; Segmentum P2
  • Posterior cerebellomedullary cistern; Cisterna magna - Cisterna cerebellomedullaris posterior; Cisterna magna
  • Posterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri posterior
  • Posterior cochlear nucleus; Dorsal cochlear nucleus - Nucleus cochlearis posterior
  • Posterior commissure - Commissura posterior; Commissura epithalamica
  • Posterior communicating artery - Arteria communicans posterior
  • Posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) - Arteria inferior posterior cerebelli
  • Posterior intercavernous sinus - Sinus intercavernosus posterior
  • Posterior limb of internale capsule - Crus posterius capsulae internae
  • Posterior lobe of cerebellum - Lobus cerebelli posterior
  • Posterior median sulcus; Dorsal median sulcus - Sulcus medianus posterior
  • Posterior nucleus of vagus nerve; Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve - Nucleus posterior nervi vagi; Nucleus dorsalis nervi vagi
  • Posterior paracentral gyrus - Gyrus paracentralis posterior
  • Posterior part; Dorsal part [H V] - Pars posterior; Pars dorsalis [H V]
  • Posterior part; Dorsal part [III] - Pars posterior; Pars dorsalis[III]
  • Posterior part; Dorsal part [V] - Pars posterior; Pars dorsalis [V]
  • Posterior quadrangular lobule [H VI] - Lobulus quadrangularis posterior [H VI]
  • Posterior ramus - Ramus posterior
  • Posterior superior fissure; Postclival fissure - Fissura posterior superior; Fissura post clivalis
  • Posterior temporal diploic vein - Vena diploica temporalis posterior
  • Posterolateral fissure - Fissura posterolateralis
  • Posterolateral sulcus; Dorsolateral sulcus - Sulcus posterolateralis
  • Posteromedian medullary vein - Vena medullaris posteromediana
  • Prebiventral fissure; Prepyramidal fissure - Fissura prebiventralis; Fissura prepyramidalis
  • Precentral cerebellar vein - Vena precentralis cerebelli
  • Precentral fissure; Postlingual fissure - Fissura precentralis; Fissura postlingualis
  • Precentral gyrus - Gyrus precentralis
  • Precentral sulcus - Sulcus precentralis
  • Precommunicating part; A1 segment - Pars precommunicalis; Segmentum A1
  • Precommunicating part; P1 segment - Pars precommunicalis; Segmentum P1
  • Preculminate fissure; Postcentral fissure - Fissura preculminalis; Fissura postcentralis
  • Precuneus - Precuneus
  • Prefrontal veins - Venae prefrontales
  • Preoccipital notch - Incisura preoccipitalis
  • Preolivary groove - Sulcus preolivaris
  • Preoptic area - Area preoptica
  • Primary fissure; Preclival fissure - Fissura prima; Fissura preclivalis
  • Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve - Nucleus principalis nervi trigemini
  • Pulvinar - Pulvinar thalami
  • Putamen - Putamen
  • Pyramid - Pyramis medullae oblongatae; Pyramis bulbi
  • Pyramis of vermis [VIII] - Pyramis vermis [VIII]
  • Quadrigeminal cistern; Cistern of great cerebral vein - Cisterna quadrigeminalis; Cisterna venae magnae cerebri
  • Raphe of pons - Raphe pontis
  • Retroolivary groove - Sulcus retroolivaris
  • Rhinal sulcus - Sulcus rhinalis
  • Rhombencephalon; Hindbrain - Rhombencephalon
  • Rhomboid fossa; Floor of fourth ventricle - Fossa rhomboidea
  • Roof of fourth ventricle - Tegmen ventriculi quarti
  • Rostrum of corpus callosum - Rostrum corporis callosi
  • Sagittal - Sagittalis
  • Secondary fissure; Postpyramidal fissure - Fissura secunda; Fissura postpyramidalis
  • Septum pellucidum - Septum pellucidum
  • Short gyri of insula - Gyri breves insulae
  • Show all - Show all
  • Sigmoid sinus - Sinus sigmoideus
  • Simple lobule [H VI and VI] - Lobulus simplex [VI et H VI]
  • Sphenoid part; Horizontal part; M1 segment - Pars sphenoidalis; Pars horizontalis; Segmentum M1
  • Sphenoparietal sinus - Sinus sphenoparietalis
  • Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis
  • Spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve - Nucleus spinalis nervi trigemini
  • Splenium of corpus callosum - Splenium corporis callosi
  • Straight gyrus - Gyrus rectus
  • Straight sinus - Sinus rectus
  • Stria medullaris of thalamus - Stria medullaris thalami
  • Stria terminalis - Stria terminalis
  • Subarachnoid space; Leptomeningeal space - Spatium subarachnoideum; Spatium leptomeningeum
  • Subcallosal area; Subcallosal gyrus - Area subcallosa
  • Subdural space (virtual) - Spatium subdurale (virtual)
  • Subparietal sulcus - Sulcus subparietalis
  • Substantia nigra - Substantia nigra
  • Subthalamus; Ventral thalamus - Subthalamus
  • Sulcus limitans - Sulcus limitans
  • Sulcus of corpus callosum - Sulcus corporis callosi
  • Superficial cerebral veins - Venae superficiales cerebri
  • Superficial middle cerebral vein - Vena media superficialis cerebri
  • Superior anastomotic vein - Vena anastomotica superior
  • Superior cerebellar artery - Arteria superior cerebelli
  • Superior cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris superior
  • Superior colliculus - Colliculus superior
  • Superior fovea - Fovea superior
  • Superior frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis superior
  • Superior frontal sulcus - Sulcus frontalis superior
  • Superior longitudinal fasciculus; Arcuate fasciculus - Fasciculus longitudinalis superior; Fasciculus arcuatus
  • Superior margin - Margo superior
  • Superior medullary velum - Velum medullare superius
  • Superior occipitofrontal fasciculus; Subcallosal fasciculus - Fasciculus occipitofrontalis superior; Fasciculus subcallosus
  • Superior parietal lobule - Lobulus parietalis superior
  • Superior petrosal sinus - Sinus petrosus superior
  • Superior sagittal sinus - Sinus sagittalis superior
  • Superior salivatory nucleus - Nucleus salivatorius superior
  • Superior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; First crus of aniform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] - Lobulus semilunaris superior cerebelli; Crus primum lobuli ansiformis cerebelli [H VII A]
  • Superior temporal gyrus - Gyrus temporalis superior
  • Superior temporal sulcus - Sulcus temporalis superior
  • Superior thalamostriate vein - Vena thalamostriata superior; Vena terminalis
  • Superior vein of vermis - Vena superior vermis
  • Superior veins of cerebellar hemisphere - Venae superiores cerebelli
  • Superior vestibular nucleus (of Bechterew) - Nucleus vestibularis superior
  • Supramarginal gyrus - Gyrus supramarginalis
  • Supraoptic recess - Recessus supraopticus
  • Suprapineal recess - Recessus suprapinealis
  • Taenia - Taenia fornicis
  • Taenia thalami - Taenia thalami
  • Tail of caudate nucleus - Cauda nuclei caudati
  • Tapetum - Tapetum
  • Tectal plate; Quadrigeminal plate - Lamina tecti; Lamina quadrigemina
  • Tegmentum of midbrain - Tegmentum mesencephali
  • Tegmentum of pons - Tegmentum pontis
  • Tela choroidea of fourth ventricle - Tela choroidea ventriculi quarti
  • Tela choroidea of third ventricle - Tela choroidea ventriculi tertii
  • Telencephalon - Telencephalon
  • Temporal horn of lateral ventricle; Inferior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu temporale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu inferius ventriculi lateralis
  • Temporal lobe - Lobus temporalis
  • Temporal operculum - Operculum temporale
  • Temporal plane - Planum temporale
  • Temporal pole - Polus temporalis
  • Temporal veins - Venae temporales
  • Tentorial notch; Incisura of tentorium - Incisura tentorii
  • Territory of anterior cerebral artery (cortical branches) - Arteria cerebri anterior
  • Territory of anterior choroidal artery (AchA) - Arteria choroidea anterior
  • Territory of anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) - Arteria inferior anterior cerebelli
  • Territory of branches from basilar artery - Arteria basilaris
  • Territory of branches from vertebral artery and anterior spinal artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Territory of lateral lenticulo-striate arteries (M1-segment of MCA) - Arteriae centrales anterolaterales
  • Territory of medial lenticulo-striate arteries and Heubner's artery (Deep ACA A1-segment) - Arteriae striatae mediales proximales
  • Territory of middle cerebral artery (cortical branches of MCA) - Arteria cerebri media
  • Territory of posterior communicating artery - Arteria communicans posterior
  • Territory of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) - Arteria inferior posterior cerebelli
  • Territory of superior cerebellar artery (SCA) - Arteria superior cerebelli
  • Terrritory of posterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri posterior
  • Thalamus - Thalamus
  • Third ventricle - Ventriculus tertius
  • Tonsil of cerebellum; Ventral paraflocculus [H IX] - Tonsilla cerebelli; Paraflocculus ventralis [H IX]
  • Transverse cerebral fissure - Fissura transversa cerebri
  • Transverse occipital fasciculi - Fasciculi occipitales horizontales
  • Transverse occipital sulcus - Sulcus occipitalis transversus
  • Transverse sinus - Sinus transversus
  • Transverse temporal gyri - Gyri temporales transversi
  • Transverse temporal sulcus - Sulcus temporalis transversus
  • Triangular part - Pars triangularis
  • Trigeminal cavity - Cavum trigeminale
  • Trigeminal ganglion - Ganglion trigeminale
  • Trigeminal nerve [V] - Nervus trigeminus [V]
  • Trigeminal tubercle - Tuberculum trigeminale
  • Trochlear nerve [IV] - Nervus trochlearis [IV]
  • Trunk - Trunk of corpus callosum - Truncus corporis callosi
  • Tuber cinereum - Tuber cinereum
  • Tuber of vermis [VII B] - Tuber vermis [VII B]
  • Uncinate fasciculus - Fasciculus uncinatus
  • Uncus - Uncus
  • Uvula of vermis [IX] - Uvula vermis [IX]
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Vasculary territories - Vasculary territories
  • Vein of lateral recess of fourth ventricle - Vena recessus lateralis ventriculi quarti
  • Veins - Venae / Venous sinuses - Venous sinuses
  • Venous plexus of foramen ovale - Plexus venosus foraminis ovalis
  • Venous plexus of hypoglossal canal - Plexus venosus canalis nervi hypoglossi
  • Venous sinuses - Venous sinuses
  • Ventricles/Citerns - Ventricles/Citerns
  • Vermis of cerebellum [I-X] - Vermis cerebelli [I-X]
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Vertical occipital fasciculi - Fasciculi occipitales verticales
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] - Nervus vestibulocochlearis [VIII]
  • White substance of cerebellum - Corpus medullares cerebelli
  • Wing of central lobule - Ala lobuli centralis

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