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Anatomy of the encephalon (MRI) in axial slices

Antoine Micheau, Denis Hoa

Published on Wednesday 09 September 2009

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

We have created a brain atlas that which is an interactive tool for studying the conventional anatomy of the normal brain based on a magnetic resonance imaging exam of the axial brain. Anatomical structures and particular areas are visible as interactive labeledlabelled images.

 

Anatomy of the brain : loading page

Cross sectional anatomy: MRI of the brain

 

  • An MRI was performed on a healthy subject, with several acquisitions with different weightings: spin-echo T1, T2 and FLAIR, T2 gradient-echo, diffusion, and T1 after gadolinium injection. We obtained 24 axial slices of the normal brain.
  • Data and DICOM images archived on our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were processed and exported as JPEG images. Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with suitable functionality and user interface for exploration of the neuroanatomy.
  • Anatomical structures were labelled according to the actual Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Cross sectional anatomy of the brain : a module based on MRI

Anatomy of the brain: how to visualize anatomic labels

 

  • This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for neuro-radiologists and radiation oncologists.
    It provides access to an atlas and to images in the axial planes, allowing the user to learn and review neuroanatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. The test mode allows the comprehensive evaluation of user progress.
  • The horizontal menu gives access to several groups of anatomical structures: encephalic sulci and gyri, limbic system, white matter, ventricle and cisterns architecture, basal nuclei and related structures, optic tract, cerebellum with its lobes according to numbered nomenclature, spinal cord. Vascularisation of the brain can be afforded with the arteries and venous sinuses sections. Pituitary and pineal glands are regrouped as “gland”.
  • As the cursor is moved over a particular anatomic area, that area is highlighted and labelled: this tool has been chosen to show encephalic lobes: frontal, occipital, parietal, temporal, insula, cerebellum (anterior, posterior and flocculonodular lobes).
  • The MRI is a particularly powerful exam for studying structures such as diencephalon, mesencephalon (mid brain), pons, myelencephalon (medulla oblongata, bulb) and spinal cord. 
  • The vertical left menu provides coronal and sagittal images of the brain, with anatomical schemas based on a three dimensional (3D) model.

 

Anatomy of the brain : axial slice T1 weighted


Anatomical parts

  • Amygdaloclaustral area - Area amygdaloclaustralis
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Angular gyrus - Gyrus angularis
  • Anterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri anterior
  • Anterior commissure - Commissura anterior
  • Anterior limb of internale capsule - Crus anterius capsulae internae
  • Anterior lobe of cerebellum - Lobus cerebelli anterior
  • Anterior quadrangular lobule [H IV and H V] - Lobulus quadrangularis anterior [H IV et H V]
  • Aqueduct of midbrain; Cerebral aqueduct - Aqueductus mesencephali; Aqueductus cerebri
  • Archicortex - Archicortex
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Ascending ramus - Ramus ascendens
  • Atrium - Atrium
  • Basal nuclei and related structures - Nuclei basales et structurae pertinentes
  • Basilar artery - Arteria basilaris
  • Basilar plexus - Plexus basilaris
  • Biventral lobule( H VIII) - Lobulus biventer (H VIII)
  • Body of caudate nucleus - Corpus nuclei caudati
  • Body of fornix - Corpus fornicis
  • Brain - Cerebrumstem - Truncus encephali
  • Calcarine sulcus - Sulcus calcarinus
  • Cavernous sinus - Sinus cavernosus
  • Central lobule [II and III] - Lobulus centralis [II et III]
  • Central part of lateral ventricle; Body of lateral ventricle - Pars centralis ventriculi lateralis
  • Central sulcus - Sulcus centralis
  • Central sulcus of insula - Sulcus centralis insulae
  • Cerebellar nuclei - Nuclei cerebelli
  • Cerebellum - Cerebellum
  • Cerebral peduncle - Pedunculus cerebri
  • Chiasmatic cistern - Cisterna chiasmatica
  • Choroid plexus - Plexus choroideus
  • Choroid plexus of third ventricle - Plexus choroideus ventriculi tertii
  • Cingulate gyrus - Gyrus cinguli
  • Cingulate sulcus - Sulcus cinguli
  • Circular sulcus of insula - Sulcus circularis insulae
  • Claustrum - Claustrum
  • Collateral sulcus - Sulcus collateralis
  • Commissure of fornix - Commissura fornicis
  • Corona radiata - Corona radiata
  • Crus of fornix - Crus fornicis
  • Culmen [IV et V] - Culmen [IV et V]
  • Cuneus - Cuneus
  • DWI - DWI
  • Declive [VI] - Declive [VI]
  • Diencephalon - Diencephalon
  • External capsule - Capsula externa
  • FLAIR - FLAIR
  • Flocculonodular lobe - Lobus flocculonodularis
  • Flocculus [H X] - Flocculus [H X]
  • Folium of vermis [VII A] - Folium vermis [VII A]
  • Fornix - Fornix
  • Fourth ventricle - Ventriculus quartus
  • Frontal horn of lateral ventricle; Anterior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu frontale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu anterius ventriculi lateralis
  • Frontal lobe - Lobus frontalis
  • Frontal pole - Polus frontalis
  • Genu of corpus callosum - Genu corporis callosi
  • Genu of internal capsule - Genu capsulae internae
  • Glands - Glands
  • Globus pallidus lateral segment; Globus pallidus external segment; External globus pallidus - Globus pallidus lateralis
  • Great cerebral vein - Vena magna cerebri
  • Gyri - Gyri
  • Head of caudate nucleus - Caput nuclei caudati
  • Inferior cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris inferior
  • Inferior colliculus - Colliculus inferior
  • Inferior frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis inferior
  • Inferior sagittal sinus - Sinus sagittalis inferior
  • Inferior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; Second crus of ansiform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] - Lobulus semilunaris inferior; Crus secundum lobuli ansiformis cerebelli[H VII A]
  • Inferior temporal gyrus - Gyrus temporalis inferior
  • Inferior temporal sulcus - Sulcus temporalis inferior
  • Insula; Insular lobe - Insula; Lobus insularis
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna
  • Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Interpeduncular cistern - Cisterna interpeduncularis
  • Interthalamic adhesion - Adhesio interthalamica
  • Interventricular foramen - Foramen - Foramen interventriculare
  • Intraparietal sulcus - Sulcus intraparietalis
  • Lateral aperture - Apertura lateralis
  • Lateral cerebellomedullary cistern - Cisterna cerebellomedullaris lateralis
  • Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus - Gyrus occipitotemporalis lateralis
  • Lateral sulcus - Sulcus lateralis
  • Limbic system - Limbic system
  • Limen insulae; Insular threshold - Limen insulae
  • Lingual gyrus - Gyrus lingualis
  • Lingula of cerebellum [I] - Lingula cerebelli [I]
  • Long gyrus of insula - Gyrus longus insulae
  • Longitudinal cerebral fissure - Fissura longitudinalis cerebri
  • Medial frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis medialis
  • Medial occipitotemporal gyrus - Gyrus occipitotemporalis medialis
  • Median aperture - Apertura mediana
  • Mesencephalon; Midbrain - Mesencephalon
  • Middle cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris medius
  • Middle cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri media
  • Middle frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis medius
  • Middle temporal gyrus - Gyrus temporalis medius
  • Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulb - Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulbus
  • Nodule [X] - Nodulus [X]
  • Occipital horn of lateral ventricle; Posterior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu occipitale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu posterius ventriculi lateralis
  • Occipital lobe - Lobus occipitalis
  • Occipital sinus - Sinus occipitalis
  • Occipitotemporal sulcus - Sulcus occipitotemporalis
  • Olfactory sulcus - Sulcus olfactorius
  • Optic nerve [II] - Nervus opticus [II]
  • Optic radiation - Radiatio optica
  • Optic tract - Optic tract
  • Optic tract - Tractus opticus
  • Orbital gyri - Gyri orbitales
  • Parahippocampal gyrus - Gyrus parahippocampalis
  • Paraterminal gyrus - Gyrus paraterminalis
  • Parietal lobe - Lobus parietalis
  • Parietooccipital sulcus - Sulcus parietooccipitalis
  • Pineal gland - Glandula pinealis
  • Pituitary gland - Hypophysis; Glandula pituitaria
  • Pons - Pons
  • Postcentral gyrus - Gyrus postcentralis
  • Postcentral sulcus - Sulcus postcentralis
  • Posterior cerebellomedullary cistern; Cisterna magna - Cisterna cerebellomedullaris posterior; Cisterna magna
  • Posterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri posterior
  • Posterior limb of internale capsule - Crus posterius capsulae internae
  • Posterior lobe of cerebellum - Lobus cerebelli posterior
  • Precentral gyrus - Gyrus precentralis
  • Precentral sulcus - Sulcus precentralis
  • Precuneus - Precuneus
  • Preoccipital notch - Incisura preoccipitalis
  • Pulvinar - Pulvinar thalami
  • Putamen - Putamen
  • Pyramis of vermis [VIII] - Pyramis vermis [VIII]
  • Quadrigeminal cistern; Cistern of great cerebral vein - Cisterna quadrigeminalis; Cisterna venae magnae cerebri
  • Red nucleus - Nucleus ruber
  • Rhinal sulcus - Sulcus rhinalis
  • Rostrum of corpus callosum - Rostrum corporis callosi
  • Septum pellucidum - Septum pellucidum
  • Short gyri of insula - Gyri breves insulae
  • Sigmoid sinus - Sinus sigmoideus
  • Simple lobule [H VI and VI] - Lobulus simplex [VI et H VI]
  • Sphenoparietal sinus - Sinus sphenoparietalis
  • Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis
  • Splenium of corpus callosum - Splenium corporis callosi
  • Straight gyrus - Gyrus rectus
  • Straight sinus - Sinus rectus
  • Subarachnoid space; Leptomeningeal space - Spatium subarachnoideum; Spatium leptomeningeum
  • Sublenticular extended amygdala - Pars sublenticularis amygdalae
  • Sulci - Sulci
  • Superior cerebellar peduncle - Pedunculus cerebellaris superior
  • Superior colliculus - Colliculus superior
  • Superior frontal gyrus - Gyrus frontalis superior
  • Superior frontal sulcus - Sulcus frontalis superior
  • Superior parietal lobule - Lobulus parietalis superior
  • Superior petrosal sinus - Sinus petrosus superior
  • Superior sagittal sinus - Sinus sagittalis superior
  • Superior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; First crus of aniform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] - Lobulus semilunaris superior cerebelli; Crus primum lobuli ansiformis cerebelli [H VII A]
  • Supramarginal gyrus - Gyrus supramarginalis
  • T1 - T1
  • T1 - T1 Gado - T1 - T1 Gado
  • T2 - T2
  • T2 - T2*
  • Tail of caudate nucleus - Cauda nuclei caudati
  • Temporal horn of lateral ventricle; Inferior horn of lateral ventricle - Cornu temporale ventriculi lateralis; Cornu inferius ventriculi lateralis
  • Temporal lobe - Lobus temporalis
  • Temporal pole - Polus temporalis
  • Thalamus - Thalamus
  • Third ventricle - Ventriculus tertius
  • Tonsil of cerebellum; Ventral paraflocculus [H IX] - Tonsilla cerebelli; Paraflocculus ventralis [H IX]
  • Transverse sinus - Sinus transversus
  • Trunk - Trunk of corpus callosum - Truncus corporis callosi
  • Tuber of vermis [VII B] - Tuber vermis [VII B]
  • Uncus - Uncus
  • Uvula of vermis [IX] - Uvula vermis [IX]
  • Venous sinuses - Venous sinuses
  • Ventricles/Citerns - Ventricles/Citerns
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Weightings - Weightings
  • White matter - Substantia alba

Full anatomic labeling of brain in coronal and sagittal planes is available in the 3D Brain MR neuroanatomy module.

Please note this advanced module requires a premium subscription.

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