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Anatomy of the cranial nerves

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

Published on Thursday 10 September 2009

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

 

This human anatomy module is dedicated to the cranial nerves. It consists of 15 vector anatomical drawings with 280 anatomical structures captioned.
It is intended for medical students working their human anatomy, student nurses, physiotherapists and electro-radiological manipulators, to medical interns – especially those working in neurology, neurosurgery, otolaryngology – and for any physician needing quick and easy access to anatomical illustrations of the twelve cranial nerves.

 

 

Cranial nerves - Anatomy (Brainstem) : Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI], Accessory nerve [XI], Facial nerve [VII], Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3], Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2], Oculomotor nerve [III], Olfactory nerve [I], Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1], Optic nerve [II], Terminal nerve 0, Trigeminal nerve [V], Trochlear nerve [IV], Vagus nerve [X], Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII], Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX], Hypoglossal nerve [XII]

Cranial nerves - Anatomy : Brainstem (Anterior view)

 

 

Diagrams of cranial nerves

 

These original anatomical drawings were produced digitally, working from medical imaging sources and 3D reconstructions using Adobe Illustrator.
They were then included in anatomical modules and labelled using Adobe Flash.

  • The first two illustrations concern the cranial nerves at their emergence from the brain stem and their passage through the various foramina of the cranial base

 

 

Cranial nerves - Cranial base : Foramina : Cribriform plate, Optic canal, Superior orbital fissure, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Internal acoustic meatus, Jugular foramen, Hypoglossal canal

Cranial nerves - Cranial base : Foramina

 

 

  • The olfactory nerves (I) have been represented together with adjoining brain structures involved in olfaction (olfactory bulb and tract, olfactory tubercle, olfactory stria...)

 

 

Olfactory nerve [I] - Anatomy (Anatomical illustrations) : Olfactory nerves, Olfactory bulb, Subcallosal area; Subcallosal gyrus, Paraolfactory sulci, Paraolfactory area, Paraterminal gyrus, Olfactory tract, Medial stria, Olfactory trigone,  Olfactory tubercle ,Lateral stria

Olfactory nerve [I] - Anatomy (Anatomical illustrations)

 

 

  • The optic nerve (II) has been represented in a diagram that brings together the optic pathways and different levels of possible lesions (hemianopia, quadrantanopia, monocular blindness)

 

Optic nerve [II] - Schematic Human anatomy : Retina, Optic chiasma,  Optic tract, Lateral geniculate body, Optic radiation, Visual cortex, Hemianopsia, Homonymous, Binasal Hemianopia, Quadrantanopsia, Blindness, Monocular, Blindness, Cortical

Optic nerve [II] - Schematic

 

 

  • The oculomotor nerves (oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear (IV) and abducens (VI)) are represented on the same diagram, from their emergence from the brainstem through the cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure, to their innervation of the orbital cavity and its contents (extra-ocular muscles, ciliary ganglion...).

 

 

Oculomotor nerve [III] - Trochlear nerve [IV] - Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] : Anatomy atlas : Superior branch,  Inferior branch,  Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion,  Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion; Branch of oculomotor nerve to ciliary ganglion, Ciliary ganglion, Obliquus capitis superior, Lateral rectus

Oculomotor nerve [III] - Trochlear nerve [IV] - Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] : Anatomy atlas

 

 

  • The dermatomes of the trigeminal nerve (V) are represented on a diagram of the face
  • The branches of the trigeminal nerve (V) are represented in three different diagrams
    • The ophthalmic nerve (V1) in the orbital cavity with its principal branches (frontal nerve, lacrimal nerve, anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerve, nasociliary nerve, branch communicating with the ciliary ganglion, supraorbital nerve, supratrochlear nerve, infra-trochlear nerve, long ciliary nerves)
    • The maxillary nerve (V2) from the trigeminal ganglion (Gasser's ganglion) with its various branches destined for the face
    • The mandibular nerve (V3) with its branches destined for the face and jaw as well as its connections with the facial nerve via the chorda tympani.

 

 

Trigeminal nerve [V] (Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3]) (Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD) : Dermatomes, Chorda tympani, Trigeminal ganglion, Inferior alveolar nerve, Auriculotemporal nerve, Buccal nerve, Nerve to lateral pterygoid, Nerve to medial pterygoid, Nerve to tensor tympani, Nerve to tensor veli palatini, Anterior ethmoidal nerve, Posterior ethmoidal nerve, Frontal nerve, Greater palatine nerve, Infraorbital nerve, Infratrochlear nerve, Lacrimal nerve, Lingual nerve, Masseteric nerve, Mental nerve, Nerve to mylohyoid, Nasociliary nerve, Nasopalatine nerve, Pharyngeal nerve, Nerve to external acoustic meatus, Sublingual nerve, Supraorbital nerve, Supratrochlear nerve, Zygomatic nerve, Superior alveolar nerves, Anterior auricular nerves, Long ciliary nerves, Lesser palatine nerves, Deep temporal nerves

Trigeminal nerve [V] (Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3]) : Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD

 

 

  • The pattern of the facial nerve (VII) is divided into two parts, one intrapetrous part with the geniculate ganglion, the greater petrosal nerve and chorda tympani, the other part consisting of the facial area after emergence from the stylomastoid foramen.

 

 

Facial nerve [VII] - Anatomy : Medical illustrations (Imaios - E-anatomy) :Geniculum, Nerve to stapedius, Posterior auricular nerve, Occipital branch, Auricular branch, Digastric branch, Stylohyoid branch, Communicating branch with glossopharyngeal nerve, Parotid plexus, Temporal branches, Zygomatic branches, Buccal branches, Lingual branch of facial nerve, Marginal mandibular branch, Cervical branch, Intermediate nerve, Geniculate ganglion, Greater petrosal nerve, Parasympathetic root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Greater petrosal nerve, Chorda tympani, Parasympathetic root of submandibular ganglion; Chorda tympani, Communicating branch with tympanic plexus, Communicating branch with vagus nerve

Facial nerve [VII] - Anatomy : Medical illustrations (Imaios - E-anatomy)

 

 

  • The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve) (VIII) passes in the internal auditory meatus to innervate structures in the inner ear (cochlear nerve: cochlear, vestibular nerve: utricle, saccule, semicircular canals)

 

 

Human anatomy - Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] : Vestibular nerve, Vestibular ganglion, Cochlear communicating branch, Superior part of vestibular nerve, Utriculoampullary nerve, Utricular nerve, Anterior ampullary nerve, Lateral ampullary nerve, Inferior part of vestibular nerve, Posterior ampullary nerve, Saccular nerve, Cochlear nerve, Cochlear ganglion; Spiral ganglion

Human anatomy : Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII]

 

 

  • The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) is schematised by means of a sagittal section of the pharynx and oral cavity, with its pharyngeal, tonsillar and lingual branches and for the carotid sinus.

 

 

Cranial nerves : Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Diagram : Superior ganglion, Inferior ganglion, Tympanic nerve, Tympanic enlargement; Tympanic ganglion, Tympanic plexus, Tubal branch, Caroticotympanic nerves, Communicating branch with auricular branch of vagus nerve, Communicating branch of vagus with glossopharyngeal nerve, Pharyngeal branches, Stylopharyngeal branch, Carotid branch, Tonsillar branches, Lingual branches, Lesser petrosal nerve; Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion, Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion; Lesser petrosal nerve, Communicating branch with meningeal branch, Communicating branch with auriculotemporal nerve, Communicating branch with chorda tympani

Cranial nerves : Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Diagram

 

 

  • A diagram of the vagus nerve (X) with all its branches for the vessels, the chest and the abdomino-pelvic viscera.

 

 

Vagus nerve [X] -  Anatomy - Human body : Superior ganglion, Meningeal branch, Auricular branch, Inferior ganglion, Pharyngeal branch, Pharyngeal plexus, Superior laryngeal nerve, External branch, Internal branch, Communicating branch with recurrent laryngeal nerve, Superior cervical cardiac branches, Inferior cervical cardiac branches, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Right recurrent laryngeal nerve, Left recurrent laryngeal nerve, Tracheal branches, Oesophageal branches, Pharyngeal branches, Thoracic cardiac branches, Bronchial branches, Pulmonary plexus, Oesophageal plexus, Anterior vagal trunk, Anterior gastric branches, Anterior nerve of lesser curvature, Hepatic branches, Pyloric branch, Posterior vagal trunk, Posterior gastric branches, Posterior nerve of lesser curvature, Coeliac branches, Renal branches

Vagus nerve [X] - Anatomy - Human body

 

 

  • The accessory nerve (XI) innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles after anastomoses with the vagus nerve and cervical plexus.

 

 

Accessory nerve [XI] - Human anatomy (Drawings : Imaios/E-anatomy) : Cranial root; Vagal part,  Spinal root; Spinal part,  Trunk of accessory nerve,  Internal branch,  External branch,  Muscular branches

Accessory nerve [XI] - Human anatomy (Drawings : Imaios/E-anatomy)

 

 

  • Finally, the hypoglossal nerve (XII) principally innervates the tongue after anastomosis with the cervical plexus and the ansa cervicalis.

 

 

Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Illustrations : Tongue, Lingual branches

Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Illustrations

 

 

Using this atlas of human anatomy

 

The illustrations are captioned in three categories: cranial nerves, foramina and organs
The user views the anatomical drawings by using the "illustrations" menu where each item corresponds to a cranial nerve.


Anatomical parts

  • Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] - Nervus abducens [VI]
  • Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI]
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Ansa cervicalis - Ansa cervicalis
  • Anterior ampullary nerve - Nervus ampullaris anterior
  • Anterior auricular nerves - Nervi auriculares anteriores
  • Anterior commissure - Commissura anterior
  • Anterior ethmoidal nerve - Nervus ethmoidalis anterior
  • Anterior gastric branches - Rami gastrici anteriores
  • Anterior membranous ampulla - Ampulla membranacea anterior
  • Anterior nerve of lesser curvature - Nervus curvaturae minoris anterior
  • Anterior semicircular duct - Ductus semicircularis anterior
  • Anterior vagal trunk - Truncus vagalis anterior
  • Aorta - Aorta
  • Auricular branch - Ramus auricularis
  • Auriculotemporal nerve - Nervus auriculotemporalis
  • Brain - Cerebrumstem - Truncus encephali
  • Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion - Ramus ad ganglion ciliare;radix parasympathica ganglii ciliaris; Radix oculomotoria ganglii ciliaris
  • Branches to isthmus of fauces - Rami isthmi faucium
  • Branches to otic ganglion; Sensory root of otic ganglion - Rami ganglionares ad ganglion oticum; Radix sensoria ganglii otici
  • Branches to tympanic membrane - Rami membranae tympani
  • Bronchi - Bronchi
  • Bronchial branches - Rami bronchiales
  • Buccal branches - Rami buccales
  • Buccal nerve - Nervus buccalis
  • Calcarine sulcus - Sulcus calcarinus
  • Cardiac plexus - Plexus cardiacus
  • Caroticotympanic nerves - Nervi caroticotympanici
  • Carotid branch - Ramus sinus carotici
  • Carotid sinus - Sinus caroticus
  • Cavernous sinus - Sinus cavernosus
  • Cervical branch - Ramus colli; Ramus cervicalis
  • Cervical plexus - Plexus cervicalis
  • Chorda tympani - Chorda tympani
  • Ciliary ganglion - Ganglion ciliare
  • Cochlea - Cochlea
  • Cochlear ganglion; Spiral ganglion - Ganglion cochleare; Ganglion spirale cochleae
  • Cochlear nerve - Nervus cochlearis
  • Coeliac branches - Rami coeliaci
  • Coeliac plexus - Plexus coeliacus
  • Communicating branch with auricular branch of vagus nerve - Ramus communicans cum ramo auriculare nervi vagi
  • Communicating branch with ciliary ganglion; Sensory root of ciliary ganglion; Nasociliary root of ciliary ganglion - Ramus communicans cum ganglio ciliari; Radix sensoria ganglii ciliaris; Radix nasociliaris ganglii ciliaris
  • Communicating branch with glossopharyngeal nerve - Ramus communicans cum nervo glossopharyngeo
  • Communicating branch with recurrent laryngeal nerve - Ramus communicans cum nervo laryngeo recurrente
  • Communicating branch with tympanic plexus - Ramus communicans cum plexu tympanico
  • Communicating branch with vagus nerve - Ramus communicans cum nervo vago
  • Communicating branches with facial nerve - Rami communicantes cum nervo faciale
  • Communicating branches with hypoglossal nerve - Rami communicantes cum nervo hypoglosso
  • Cornea - Cornea
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii
  • Cranial nerves - Nervi craniales
  • Cranial root; Vagal part - Radix cranialis; Pars vagalis
  • Cribriform plate - Lamina cribrosa
  • Deep temporal nerves - Nervi temporales profundi
  • Dermatomes - Dermatomes
  • Digastric branch - Ramus digastricus
  • External branch - Ramus externus
  • External features - Morphologia externa
  • External nasal branches - Rami nasales externi
  • Facial muscles - Musculi faciei
  • Facial nerve [VII] - Nervus facialis [VII]
  • Foramen - Foramen ovale - Foramen - Foramen ovale
  • Foramen - Foramen rotundum - Foramen - Foramen rotundum
  • Foramina - Foramina
  • Frontal nerve - Nervus frontalis
  • Ganglionic branches to submandibular ganglion; Sensory root of submandibular ganglion - Rami ganglionares ad ganglion submandibulare; Radix sensoria ganglii submandibularis
  • Geniculate ganglion - Ganglion geniculi; Ganglion geniculatum
  • Geniculum - Geniculum
  • Gingival branches - Rami gingivales
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Nervus glossopharyngeus [IX]
  • Greater palatine foramen - Foramen - Foramen palatinum majus
  • Greater palatine nerve - Nervus palatinus major
  • Greater petrosal nerve - Nervus petrosus major
  • Heart - Cor
  • Hepatic branches - Rami hepatici
  • Hepatic plexus - Plexus hepaticus
  • Hypoglossal canal - Canalis nervi hypoglossi
  • Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Nervus hypoglossus [XII]
  • Illustrations - Illustrations
  • Illustrations - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - Illustrations - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD
  • Incisive duct - Ductus incisivus
  • Inferior alveolar nerve - Nervus alveolaris inferior
  • Inferior branch - Ramus inferior
  • Inferior cervical cardiac branches - Rami cardiaci cervicales inferiores
  • Inferior dental branches - Rami dentales inferiores
  • Inferior dental plexus - Plexus dentalis inferior
  • Inferior ganglion - Ganglion inferius
  • Inferior gingival branches - Rami gingivales inferiores
  • Inferior orbital fissure - Fissura orbitalis inferior
  • Inferior palpebral branches - Rami palpebrales inferiores
  • Inferior part of vestibular nerve - Pars inferior
  • Inferior root; Inferior limb - Radix inferior
  • Infraorbital foramen - Foramen - Foramen infraorbitale
  • Infraorbital nerve - Nervus infraorbitalis
  • Infratrochlear nerve - Nervus infratrochlearis
  • Intermediate nerve - Nervus intermedius
  • Internal acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus internus
  • Internal branch - Ramus internus
  • Internal nasal branches - Rami nasales interni
  • Jugular foramen - Foramen - Foramen jugulare
  • Labial branches - Rami labiales
  • Lacrimal gland - Glandula lacrimalis
  • Lacrimal nerve - Nervus lacrimalis
  • Larynx - Larynx
  • Lateral ampullary nerve - Nervus ampullaris lateralis
  • Lateral geniculate body - Corpus geniculatum laterale
  • Lateral membranous ampulla - Ampulla membranacea lateralis
  • Lateral rectus - Musculus rectus lateralis
  • Lateral semicircular duct - Ductus semicircularis lateralis
  • Lateral stria - Stria olfactoria lateralis
  • Left recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens
  • Lesser palatine foramina - Foramina palatina minora
  • Lesser palatine nerves - Nervi palatini minores
  • Lesser petrosal nerve; Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion - Nervus petrosus minor; Radix parasympathica ganglii otici
  • Lingual branch of facial nerve - Ramus lingualis nervus facialis
  • Lingual branches - Rami linguales
  • Lingual nerve - Nervus lingualis
  • Liver - Hepar
  • Long ciliary nerves - Nervi Ciliares longi
  • Mandibular foramen - Foramen - Foramen mandibulae
  • Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3] - Nervus mandibularis [Vc; V3]
  • Marginal mandibular branch - Ramus marginalis mandibularis
  • Masseteric nerve - Nervus massetericus
  • Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Nervus maxillaris[Vb; V2]
  • Medial stria - Stria olfactoria medialis
  • Meningeal branch - Ramus meningeus
  • Meningeal branch; Nervus spinosus - Ramus meningeus; Nervus spinosus
  • Mental branches - Rami mentales
  • Mental foramen - Foramen - Foramen mentale
  • Mental nerve - Nervus mentalis
  • Motor root - Radix motoria
  • Muscular branches - Rami musculares
  • Nasociliary nerve - Nervus nasociliaris
  • Nasopalatine nerve - Nervus nasopalatinus
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal - Nervus canalis pterygoidei
  • Nerve to external acoustic meatus - Nervus meatus acustici externi
  • Nerve to lateral pterygoid - Nervus pterygoideus lateralis
  • Nerve to medial pterygoid - Nervus pterygoideus medialis
  • Nerve to mylohyoid - Nervus mylohyoideus
  • Nerve to stapedius - Nervus stapedius
  • Nerve to tensor tympani - Nervus musculi tensoris tympani
  • Nerve to tensor veli palatini - Nervus musculi tensoris veli palatini
  • Oculomotor nerve [III] - Nervus oculomotorius [III]
  • Oesophageal branches - Rami oesophagei
  • Oesophageal plexus - Plexus oesophageus
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Olfactory bulb - Bulbus olfactorius
  • Olfactory nerve [I] - Nervus olfactorius [I]
  • Olfactory nerves - Fila olfactoria
  • Olfactory tract - Tractus olfactorius
  • Olfactory trigone - Trigonum olfactorium
  • Olfactory tubercle - Tuberculum olfactorium
  • Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Nervus ophthalmicus [Va; V1]
  • Optic canal - Canalis opticus
  • Optic chiasma - Chiasma opticum
  • Optic nerve [II] - Nervus opticus [II]
  • Optic radiation - Radiatio optica
  • Optic tract - Tractus opticus
  • Orbital branches - Rami orbitales
  • Organs - Organs
  • Ostium primum - Ren; Nephros
  • Otic ganglion - Ganglion oticum
  • Palatine tonsil - Tonsilla palatina
  • Parahippocampal gyrus - Gyrus parahippocampalis
  • Paraolfactory area - Area paraolfactoria
  • Paraolfactory sulci - Sulci paraolfactorii
  • Paraterminal gyrus - Gyrus paraterminalis
  • Parotid branches - Rami parotidei
  • Parotid plexus - Plexus intraparotideus
  • Pharyngeal branch - Ramus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal branches - Rami pharyngei
  • Pharyngeal nerve - Nervus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal plexus - Plexus pharyngeus
  • Pharynx - Pharynx
  • Posterior ampullary nerve - Nervus ampullaris posterior
  • Posterior auricular nerve - Nervus auricularis posterior
  • Posterior ethmoidal nerve - Nervus ethmoidalis posterior
  • Posterior gastric branches - Rami gastrici posteriores
  • Posterior membranous ampulla - Ampulla membranacea posterior
  • Posterior nerve of lesser curvature - Nervus curvaturae minoris posterior
  • Posterior semicircular duct - Ductus semicircularis posterior
  • Posterior superior lateral nasal branches - Rami nasales posteriores superiores laterales
  • Posterior superior medial nasal branches - Rami nasales posteriores superiores mediales
  • Posterior vagal trunk - Truncus vagalis posterior
  • Pterygopalatine fossa - Fossa pterygopalatina
  • Pterygopalatine ganglion - Ganglion pterygopalatinum
  • Pulmonary plexus - Plexus pulmonalis
  • Pyloric branch - Ramus pyloricus
  • Radix sensoria ganglii pterygopalatini; Rr. ganglionares n. maxillaris - Rami ganglionares ad ganglion pterygopalatinum; Radix sensoria ganglii pterygopalatini
  • Renal branches - Rami renales
  • Retina - Retina
  • Right recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens
  • Saccular nerve - Nervus saccularis
  • Saccule - Sacculus
  • Sensory root - Radix sensoria
  • Spinal nerves - Nervi spinales
  • Spinal root; Spinal part - Radix spinalis; Pars spinalis
  • Sternocleidomastoid - Musculus sternocleidomastoideus
  • Stomach - Gaster
  • Stylohyoid branch - Ramus stylohyoideus
  • Stylomastoid foramen - Foramen - Foramen stylomastoideum
  • Stylopharyngeal branch - Ramus musculi stylopharyngei
  • Subcallosal area; Subcallosal gyrus - Area subcallosa
  • Sublingual gland - Glandula sublingualis
  • Sublingual nerve - Nervus sublingualis
  • Submandibular ganglion - Ganglion submandibulare
  • Submandibular gland - Glandula submandibularis
  • Superficial temporal branches - Rami temporales superficiales
  • Superior alveolar nerves - Nervi alveolares superiores
  • Superior branch - Ramus superior
  • Superior cervical cardiac branches - Rami cardiaci cervicales superiores
  • Superior ganglion - Ganglion superius
  • Superior labial branches - Rami labiales superiores
  • Superior laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus superior
  • Superior oblique - Musculus obliquus superior
  • Superior orbital fissure - Fissura orbitalis superior
  • Superior part of vestibular nerve - Pars superior
  • Superior root; Superior limb - Radix superior
  • Supraorbital nerve - Nervus supraorbitalis
  • Supratrochlear nerve - Nervus supratrochlearis
  • Temporal branches - Rami temporales
  • Tentorial nerve - Ramus meningeus recurrens; Ramus tentorius
  • Thoracic cardiac branches - Rami cardiaci thoracici
  • Thyrohyoid branch - Ramus thyrohyoideus
  • Tongue - Lingua
  • Tonsillar branches - Rami tonsillares
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Tracheal branches - Rami tracheales
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Trigeminal ganglion - Ganglion trigeminale
  • Trigeminal nerve [V] - Nervus trigeminus [V]
  • Trochlear nerve [IV] - Nervus trochlearis [IV]
  • Trunk - Trunk of accessory nerve - Truncus nervi accessorii
  • Tubal branch - Ramus tubarius
  • Tympanic cavity - Cavitas tympani
  • Tympanic enlargement; Tympanic ganglion - Intumescentia tympanica; Ganglion tympanicum
  • Tympanic nerve - Nervus tympanicus
  • Tympanic plexus - Plexus tympanicus
  • Uncus - Uncus
  • Utricle - Utriculus
  • Utricular nerve - Nervus utricularis
  • Utriculoampullary nerve - Nervus utriculoampullaris
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Vestibular ganglion - Ganglion vestibulare
  • Vestibular nerve - Nervus vestibularis
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] - Nervus vestibulocochlearis [VIII]
  • Visual cortex - Visual cortex
  • Zygomatic branches - Rami zygomatici
  • Zygomatic nerve - Nervus zygomaticus
  • Zygomaticofacial branch - Ramus zygomaticofacialis
  • Zygomaticofacial foramen - Foramen - Foramen zygomaticofaciale
  • Zygomaticoorbital foramen - Foramen - Foramen zygomaticoorbitale
  • Zygomaticotemporal branch - Ramus zygomaticotemporalis
  • Zygomaticotemporal foramen - Foramen - Foramen zygomaticotemporale

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