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Anatomy of the face and neck (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

This head and neck anatomic atlas is an educational tool for studying the normal anatomy of the face based on a contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography imaging (axial and coronal planes). Interactive labelled images allow a comprehensive study of the anatomical structures.

 

Anatomy of the human body : facial structures labeled on a computed tomography (axial and coronal slices).

 

Cross sectional anatomy: CT of the head and neck

 

A coronal and axial contrast enhanced multidetector computed tomography imaging of the head and neck was performed on a healthy subject.
DICOM images archived in the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were processed and exported as JPEG images. Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop anatomical atlas software with a suitable functionality and user interface for the exploration of the head and neck and the skull base.
Anatomical structures were labelled according to the new Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Anatomy of the maxillar and mandibular bone with teeth numbered (international tooth numbers)

Anatomy of the head and neck: how to visualize anatomic labels

 

This atlas is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for residents and medical students and especially for radiologists and surgeons.
It provides images in the axial and coronal planes so that the user can study and learn anatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing a comprehensive teaching resource. Evaluation of user progress is assessed with the test mode.

 

deep face spaces anatomy based on mdct : temporal space, parotid space, prevertebral space, retropharyngeal space, masticator space.

 

The horizontal menu allows access to the groups of anatomical structures:

  • Bones: ethmoidal, frontal, lacrimal, palatine, parietal, temporal and zygomatic bones, mandible, maxilla, sphenoid, vomer.
  • Teeth
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Muscles
  • Nerves
  • Foramen
  • Cavities
  • Mucosa/glands
  • Lymph nodes regions

 

As the cursor is moved over a particular anatomic area, that area is highlighted and labelled: this tool has been chosen to show deep face spaces and cavities:

 

  • Pharyngeal mucosal space
  • Oral cavity
  • Masticator space
  • Parotid space
  • Carotid space
  • Retropharyngeal space
  • Perivertebral space
  • Visceral space
  • Posterior cervical space
  • Sublingual space
  • Submandibular fossa
  • Paravertebral space
  • Prevertebral space
  • Retropharyngeal space

 

The vertical left menu provides axial, coronal and sagittal reference tools of the face, with anatomical graphics based on a three dimensional (3D) model.


Anatomical parts

  • Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] - Nervus abducens [VI]
  • Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI]
  • Alveolar process - Processus alveolaris
  • Alveolar recess - Recessus alveolaris (Maxillary sinus - Sinus maxillaris)
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Angle of mandible - Angulus mandibulae
  • Angular artery - Arteria angularis
  • Angular vein - Vena angularis
  • Anterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri anterior
  • Anterior clinoid process - Processus clinoideus anterior
  • Anterior cranial fossa - Fossa cranii anterior
  • Anterior deep temporal artery - Arteria temporalis profunda anterior
  • Anterior ethmoidal foramen - Foramen - Foramen ethmoidale anterius
  • Anterior jugular vein - Vena jugularis anterior
  • Anterior nasal spine - Spina nasalis anterior
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Articular tubercle - Tuberculum articulare
  • Aryepiglottic fold - Plica aryepiglottica
  • Ascending pharyngeal artery - Arteria pharyngea ascendens
  • Atlas [C I] - Atlas [C I]
  • Auditory tube - Tuba auditiva
  • Axis [C II] - Axis [C II]
  • Basilar artery - Arteria basilaris
  • Body of hyoid bone - Corpus ossis hyoidei
  • Body of mandible - Corpus mandibulae
  • Body of sphenoid bone - Corpus sphenoidale
  • Body of tongue - Corpus linguae
  • Bones - Os
  • Buccinator - Musculus buccinator
  • C3 - C3
  • C4 - C4
  • C5 - C5
  • Canine tooth - Dens caninus
  • Carotid canal - Canalis caroticus
  • Carotid space - (Carotid space)
  • Cavernous sinus - Sinus cavernosus
  • Cavities - Cavities
  • Choana; Posterior nasal aperture - Choana; Apertura nasalis posterior
  • Choroid plexus of third ventricle - Plexus choroideus ventriculi tertii
  • Clivus - Clivus
  • Cochlear nerve - Nervus cochlearis
  • Common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Common trunk (facial, retromandibular and lingual veins) - Common trunk (facial, retromandibular and lingual veins)
  • Condylar canal - Canalis condylaris
  • Condylar process - Processus condylaris
  • Coronoid process - Processus coronoideus
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Bones - Os)
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Foramina - Foramina)
  • Cribriform foramina - Foramina cribrosa
  • Cribriform plate - Lamina cribrosa
  • Crista galli - Crista galli
  • Deep facial vein - Vena profunda faciei
  • Depressor anguli oris - Musculus depressor anguli oris
  • Depressor labii inferioris - Musculus depressor labii inferioris
  • Descending palatine artery - Arteria palatina descendens
  • Diagrams - Diagrams
  • Digastric - Musculus digastricus (Anterior belly - Venter anterior)
  • Digastric - Musculus digastricus (Posterior belly - Venter posterior)
  • Digastric fossa - Fossa digastrica
  • Dorsal nasal artery; External nasal artery - Arteria dorsalis nasi
  • Dorsum sellae - Dorsum sellae
  • Epicranius - Musculus epicranius
  • Epiglottis - Epiglottis
  • Ethmoid; Ethmoidal bone - Os ethmoidale
  • Ethmoidal bulla - Bulla ethmoidalis
  • Ethmoidal cells - Cellulae ethmoidales
  • External acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus externus
  • External carotid artery - Arteria carotis externa
  • External intercostal muscle - Musculi intercostales externi
  • External jugular vein - Vena jugularis externa
  • External palatine vein - Vena palatina externa
  • Eyeball - Bulbus oculi
  • Facial artery - Arteria facialis
  • Facial nerve [VII] - Nervus facialis [VII]
  • Facial vein - Vena facialis
  • Foramen - Foramen caecum - Foramen - Foramen caecum
  • Foramen - Foramen lacerum - Foramen - Foramen lacerum
  • Foramen - Foramen magnum - Foramen - Foramen magnum
  • Foramen - Foramen ovale - Foramen - Foramen ovale
  • Foramen - Foramen rotundum - Foramen - Foramen rotundum
  • Foramen - Foramen spinosum - Foramen - Foramen spinosum
  • Foramen - Foramen transversarium - Foramen - Foramen transversarium
  • Foramina - Foramina
  • Frontal bone - Os frontale
  • Frontal crest - Crista frontalis
  • Frontal process - Processus frontalis
  • Frontal sinus - Sinus frontalis
  • Frontonasal duct - Canalis frontonasalis
  • Genioglossus - Musculus genioglossus
  • Geniohyoid - Musculus geniohyoideus
  • Glabella - Glabella
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Nervus glossopharyngeus [IX]
  • Great cerebral vein - Vena magna cerebri
  • Greater horn - Cornu majus
  • Greater palatine foramen - Foramen - Foramen palatinum majus
  • Greater wing - Ala major
  • Head of mandible - Caput mandibulae; Condylus mandibulae
  • Hiatus for greater petrosal nerve - Hiatus canalis nervi petrosi majoris
  • Hide - Hide
  • Hide all bones - Hide all bones
  • Horizontal plate - Lamina horizontalis
  • Hyoglossus - Musculus hyoglossus
  • Hypoglossal canal - Canalis nervi hypoglossi
  • Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Nervus hypoglossus [XII]
  • Hypophysial fossa - Fossa hypophysialis
  • Incisive fossa - Fossa incisiva
  • Incisor tooth - Dens incisivus Central - Centralis
  • Incisor tooth - Dens incisivus Lateral - Lateralis
  • Inferior alveolar artery - Arteria alveolaris inferior
  • Inferior constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis inferior
  • Inferior labial branch - Arteria labialis inferior
  • Inferior nasal concha - Concha nasalis inferior
  • Inferior nasal meatus - Meatus nasi inferior
  • Inferior oblique - Musculus obliquus inferior
  • Inferior ophthalmic vein - Vena ophthalmica inferior
  • Inferior orbital fissure - Fissura orbitalis inferior
  • Inferior rectus - Musculus rectus inferior
  • Infraorbital artery - Arteria infraorbitalis
  • Infraorbital foramen - Foramen - Foramen infraorbitale
  • Infraorbital recess - Recessus infraorbitale (Maxillary sinus - Sinus maxillaris)
  • Infratemporal fossa - Fossa infratemporalis
  • Infratemporal surface - Facies infratemporalis
  • Internal acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus internus
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna
  • Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Intraglandular nodes - Nodi intraglandulares
  • Jugular foramen - Foramen - Foramen jugulare
  • Jugular trunk - Truncus jugularis
  • Jugulodigastric nod - Nodus jugulodigastricus
  • Jugum sphenoidale; Sphenoidal yoke - Jugum sphenoidale
  • Lacrimal bone - Os lacrimale
  • Lacrimal canaliculus - Canaliculus lacrimalis
  • Lacrimal groove - Sulcus lacrimalis
  • Laryngeal inlet - Aditus laryngis
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales
  • Lateral plate - Lamina lateralis
  • Lateral pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus lateralis
  • Lateral rectus - Musculus rectus lateralis
  • Lesser horn - Cornu minus
  • Lesser palatine foramina - Foramina palatina minora
  • Lesser wing - Ala minor
  • Levator anguli oris - Musculus levator anguli oris
  • Levator labii superioris - Musculus levator labii superioris
  • Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi - Musculus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
  • Levator palpebrae superioris - Musculus levator palpebrae superioris
  • Levator scapulae - Musculus levator scapulae
  • Levator veli palatini - Musculus levator veli palatini
  • Lingual artery - Arteria lingualis
  • Lingual vein - Vena lingualis
  • Lingula - Lingula mandibulae
  • Longissimus capitis - Musculus longissimus capitis
  • Lymph nodes of head and neck - Nodi lymphoidei capitis et colli
  • Mandible - Mandibula
  • Mandibular foramen - Foramen - Foramen mandibulae
  • Mandibular fossa - Fossa mandibularis
  • Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3] - Nervus mandibularis [Vc; V3]
  • Mandibular notch - Incisura mandibulae
  • Masseter - Musculus masseter
  • Masticator space - Masticator space
  • Mastoid cells - Cellulae mastoideae
  • Mastoid process - Processus mastoideus
  • Maxilla - Maxilla
  • Maxillary artery - Arteria maxillaris
  • Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Nervus maxillaris[Vb; V2]
  • Medial plate - Lamina medialis
  • Medial pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus medialis
  • Medial rectus - Musculus rectus medialis
  • Mental foramen - Foramen - Foramen mentale
  • Mental protuberance - Protuberantia mentalis
  • Mental tubercle - Tuberculum mentale
  • Middle cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri media
  • Middle constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis medius
  • Middle cranial fossa - Fossa cranii media
  • Middle meningeal artery - Arteria meningea media
  • Middle meningeal veins - Venae meningeae mediae
  • Middle nasal concha - Concha nasalis media
  • Middle nasal meatus - Meatus nasi medius
  • Molar tooth - Dens molaris (1)
  • Molar tooth - Dens molaris (2)
  • Molar tooth - Dens molaris (3)
  • Mucosal pharyngeal space - Mucosal pharyngeal space
  • Mucosas / Glands - Mucosas / Glands
  • Muscles - Musculi
  • Muscles of soft palate and fauces - Musculi palati mollis et faucium
  • Mylohyoid - Musculus mylohyoideus
  • Mylohyoid groove - Sulcus mylohyoideus
  • Mylohyoid line - Linea mylohyoidea
  • Nasal bone - Os nasale
  • Nasal cavity - Cavitas nasi
  • Nasal surface - Facies nasalis
  • Nasopharynx - Pars nasalis pharyngis
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • Nodi sternocleidomastoides - Nodi sternocleidomastoides
  • Obliquus capitis inferior - Musculus obliquus capitis inferior
  • Obliquus capitis superior - Musculus obliquus capitis superior
  • Occipital artery - Arteria occipitalis
  • Occipital bone - Os occipitale
  • Occipital condyle - Condylus occipitalis
  • Oculomotor nerve [III] - Nervus oculomotorius [III]
  • Olfactory nerve [I] - Nervus olfactorius [I]
  • Opening of sphenoidal sinus - Apertura sinus sphenoidalis
  • Ophthalmic artery - Arteria ophthalmica
  • Optic canal - Canalis opticus
  • Optic nerve [II] - Nervus opticus [II]
  • Oral Part of the Pharynx  - Pars oralis pharyngis
  • Oral cavity - Cavitas oris
  • Orbicularis oris - Musculus orbicularis oris
  • Orbital plate - Lamina orbitalis
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis (Greater wing - Ala major)
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis (Lesser wing - Ala minor)
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis (Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum)
  • Ouverture du sinus maxillaire - Ouverture du sinus maxillaire
  • Palatine bone - Os palatinum
  • Palatine process - Processus palatinus
  • Palatine tonsil - Tonsilla palatina
  • Palatopharyngeal arch; Posterior pillar of fauces - Arcus palatopharyngeus; Plica posterior faucium
  • Palatopharyngeus - Musculus palatopharyngeus
  • Parapharyngeal space; Lateral pharyngeal space - Spatium lateropharyngeum; Spatium pharyngeum laterale; Spatium parapharyngeum
  • Paravertebral space - Paravertebral space
  • Parietal bone - Os parietale
  • Parotid gland - Glandula parotidea
  • Parotid space - Parotid space
  • Perpendicular plate - Lamina perpendicularis
  • Petrous part - Pars petrosa
  • Pharyngeal recess - Recessus pharyngeus
  • Piriform fossa; Piriform recess - Recessus piriformis
  • Platysma - Platysma
  • Posterior auricular artery - Arteria auricularis posterior
  • Posterior cerebral artery - Arteria cerebri posterior
  • Posterior cervical space - Posterior cervical space
  • Posterior clinoid process - Processus clinoideus posterior
  • Posterior cranial fossa - Fossa cranii posterior
  • Postero-lateral superficial cervical nodes - Postero-lateral superficial cervical nodes
  • Prechiasmatic sulcus - Sulcus prechiasmaticus
  • Premolar tooth - Dens premolaris (1)
  • Premolar tooth - Dens premolaris (2)
  • Prevertebral space - Prevertebral space
  • Pterygoid fovea - Fovea pterygoidea
  • Pterygoid hamulus - Hamulus pterygoideus
  • Pterygopalatine fossa - Fossa pterygopalatina
  • Ramus of mandible - Ramus mandibulae
  • Rectus capitis posterior major - Musculus rectus capitis posterior major
  • Retromandibular vein - Vena retromandibularis
  • Retromaxillozygomatic space - Retromaxillozygomatic space
  • Retropharyngeal nodes - Nodi retropharyngeales
  • Retropharyngeal space - Spatium retropharyngeum
  • Risorius - Musculus risorius
  • Root of tongue - Radix linguae
  • Salpingopharyngeal fold - Plica salpingopharyngea
  • Scalenus muscles - Scalenus muscles
  • Semispinalis capitis - Musculus semispinalis capitis
  • Semispinalis cervicis - Musculus semispinalis cervicis; Musculus semispinalis colli
  • Show all bones - Show all bones
  • Sigmoid sinus - Sinus sigmoideus
  • Soft palate - Palatum molle; Velum palatinum
  • Soft tissues - Soft tissues
  • Sphenoid; Sphenoidal bone - Os sphenoidale
  • Sphenoidal sinus - Sinus sphenoidalis
  • Sphenopalatine artery - Arteria sphenopalatina
  • Sphenopalatine foramen - Foramen - Foramen sphenopalatinum
  • Spine of sphenoid bone - Spina ossis sphenoidalis
  • Splenius capitis - Musculus splenius capitis
  • Squamous part - Pars squamosa
  • Sternocleidomastoid - Musculus sternocleidomastoideus
  • Sternohyoid - Musculus sternohyoideus Thyrohyoid - Musculus thyrohyoideus Omohyoid - Musculus omohyoideus
  • Styloglossus - Musculus styloglossus
  • Styloid process - Processus styloideus
  • Stylomastoid foramen - Foramen - Foramen stylomastoideum
  • Stylopharyngeus - Musculus stylopharyngeus
  • Sublingual gland - Glandula sublingualis
  • Sublingual space - Sublingual space
  • Submandibular fossa - Fovea submandibularis
  • Submandibular ganglion - Ganglion submandibulare
  • Submandibular gland - Glandula submandibularis
  • Submental artery - Arteria submentalis
  • Submental nodes - Nodi submentales
  • Submental vein - Vena submentalis
  • Superficial parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei superficiales
  • Superficial temporal artery - Arteria temporalis superficialis
  • Superficial temporal veins - Venae temporales superficiales
  • Superior constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis superior
  • Superior laryngeal artery - Arteria laryngea superior
  • Superior mental spine; Superior genial spine - Spina mentalis superior; Spina geni superior
  • Superior nasal concha - Concha nasalis superior
  • Superior oblique - Musculus obliquus superior
  • Superior ophthalmic vein - Vena ophthalmica superior
  • Superior orbital fissure - Fissura orbitalis superior
  • Superior petrosal sinus - Sinus petrosus superior
  • Superior rectus - Musculus rectus superior
  • Superior sagittal sinus - Sinus sagittalis superior
  • Superior thyroid artery - Arteria thyroidea superior
  • Supraorbital notch; Supraorbital foramen - Incisura supraorbitalis; foramen supraorbitale
  • Sympathetic trunk - Truncus sympathicus
  • Teeth - Dentes
  • Temporal bone - Os temporale
  • Temporal process - Processus temporalis
  • Temporalis; Temporal muscle - Musculus temporalis
  • Tensor veli palatini - Musculus tensor veli palatini
  • Torus tubarius - Torus tubarius
  • Transverse facial artery - Arteria transversa faciei
  • Trigeminal ganglion - Ganglion trigeminale
  • Trigeminal nerve [V] - Nervus trigeminus [V]
  • Trochlear nerve [IV] - Nervus trochlearis [IV]
  • Tuberculum sellae - Tuberculum sellae
  • Tympanic canaliculus - Canaliculus tympanicus
  • Tympanic cavity - Cavitas tympani
  • Tympanic part - Pars tympanica
  • Uncinate process - Processus uncinatus
  • Uvula - Uvula palatina
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Veins - Vena
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Vestibular canaliculus - Canaliculus vestibuli
  • Visceral space of the neck - Visceral space of the neck
  • Vomer - Vomer
  • Window - Window
  • Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum
  • Zygomatic process - Processus zygomaticus
  • Zygomatic recess - Zygomatic recess (Maxillary sinus - Sinus maxillaris)
  • Zygomaticofacial foramen - Foramen - Foramen zygomaticofaciale
  • Zygomaticus major - Musculus zygomaticus major
  • Zygomaticus minor - Musculus zygomaticus minor
  • laryngeal part of the pharynx - Pars laryngea pharyngis

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