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ENT anatomy: MRI of the face and neck - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

We attempted to synthesize the anatomy of the face and neck in this anatomic module. We used MRI images T2-weighted with axial, sagittal and coronal planes. 512 anatomical structures were dynamically labelled, and some structures have been redesigned or enhanced with a graphic tablet for better readability.

 

Cross-sectional anatomy: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the head and neck

 

  • An MRI of the face and neck was performed on a healthy patient, using T2 weighting, (image size: 320 * 320 pixels) (600 images). We did not select the T1 weighting because it provided a lower contrast. Unfortunately, during the MR exam, we discovered a thyroglossal duct cyst associated with ectopic thyroid behind the hyoid bone. We have didactically “cleared” this abnormal image in order to provide users with a normal exam; however anomalies can be seen in the pre-epiglottic fat body; please excuse us for this.
  • After post-processing with Photoshop, DICOM images converted to JPEG have been included with Adobe Flash to create this dynamic module. Each anatomical element has been labelled on the 3 space planes: axial, frontal and sagittal.

 

Anatomical structures of the face and oral cavity labeled on a MRI axial slice : pharynx, tong, tooth, masticator muscles...

Anatomy of the face and neck: display anatomical legends

With the top menu, the user can select the legends he needs to view:

 

Anatomy of the oral cavity, nose and sinus of the face : coronal slice with anatomical structures labeled

 

 

  • The bones of the face and neck were labelled with different colours in order to facilitate comprehension. The bone structures are rather more difficult to visualize on a weighted MRI T2 than on a CT-Scan: for more details on the bones of the face, please refer to the e-anatomy module “face on CT-Scan”.
  • The teeth were numbered using FDI World Dental Federation notation ISO-3950. 
  • As regards the large number of muscle structures of the head and neck, we had to use several groups of muscles: muscles of the face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, neck, back and masticator muscles. 
    • The fascias of the face and neck were labelled however their complex structure could not be redrawn.
  • We tried to be as comprehensive as possible for the study of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses and oral cavity, however it is true that the descriptive anatomy of many structures is sometimes more difficult to see on MRI than as they are viewed in the practice of other medical specialties (endoscopy, etc.).
  • We have distinguished the 3 parts of the pharynx (nasopharynx, and oropharynx laryngopharynx) in order to limit the number of structures displayed on a single image.
  • •    The tab larynx includes both the cartilage of the larynx but also all adjacent structures, including mucous membranes.
  • The oesophagus, trachea and thyroid gland were grouped as they represent only few anatomical structures of this module.
  • The arteries and veins of the face and neck were labelled, focusing on large trunks emerging from the external carotid artery or draining into the jugular vein system.
  • The peripheral nervous system is extremely complex as regards the otolaryngologic anatomy and has also benefited from a segmentation in several groups: on the one hand the cranial nerves (trigeminal nerve (V) split into ophthalmic nerve (V1), nerve maxillary (V2) and mandibular nerve (V3 )); facial nerve (VII), vestibulo-cochlear nerve (VIII), glosso-pharyngeal nerve (IX), vagus nerve (X) (or pneumogastric), accessory nerve (XI) (Note that one of the roots was represented as cranial however recent studies suggest that it does not exist and that there is only a spinal root); hypoglossal nerve (XII); and secondly the autonomic nervous system and the system dependent on the spinal roots of the cervical and thoracic spinal cord (cervical plexus, brachial plexus and nervous system dependent branches after cervical). All these nerves and their branches were labelled according to their assumed position since they are very difficult to see directly on Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Only the cranial nerves at the emergence of the brainstem and spinal roots could be viewed directly. Other captions mainly followed the vessels to which they are most often joined.
  • The lymphatic system was represented by green symbols so as to facilitate comprehension; indeed nodes from the face and neck were inconsistent, especially in healthy subjects. The terminology in practice uses a double nomenclature: anatomical names defined by the Terminologia Anatomica, but also a system of classification with numbers used by radiologists, oncologists and ENT surgeons (American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS) guidelines). We mainly used two publications: http://www.cancerimaging.org/2004/4/2/0020/ and http://archotol.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/125/4/388. Note that the supraclavicular nodes may be numbered V or IV, or simply referred to by their anatomical names. We decided to classify it VB.
  • The deep spaces of the face and neck were completely redrawn for each image of each plane for direct viewing. Indeed there are already two e-anatomy modules devoted to this complex anatomy and we wanted to make it different by not using interactive areas. This last point in particular facilitates the teaching of deep spaces of the face and neck for students in medicine, anatomy or nurses and paramedics, who may directly study the limits and content of these spaces. Most of these spaces are not explained as such in the Terminologia Anatomica and their names vary among authors. To facilitate understanding and to avoid any controversy, we have shown different spaces on the right and left part of thee axial and coronal slices. We welcome any comments on this critical point.

 

Lymphatic nodes anatomy of the face and neck : facial nodes, cervical nodes, jugulodigastric node, occipital nodes...

 

 

All anatomical structures of the Terminologia Anatomica are translated in French, English, Spanish, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Chinese. This module can be used as a medical dictionary.
This atlas of otolaryngologic anatomy on an MRI of the face and neck was designed to facilitate the teaching by anatomists in different universities and medical schools, to facilitate understanding by students preparing for medical exams (such as medical boards as well as for nurses, radiology technicians and physiotherapists), but also to facilitate medical practice common in radiology, radiotherapy, oncology, nuclear medicine, dental, ENT and maxillo-facial surgery and medicine in general.

Deep face and neck spaces delineated on a MRI : temporal space, parotid space, carotid space, retropharyngeal space, posterior cervical space...

Deep face and neck spaces delineated on a MRI

 

 

 

 

 

References :

  • Atlas of Human Anatomy, Professional Edition by Frank H. Netter · Publisher: Saunders; 4 edition (July 13, 2006) Language: English · ISBN-10: 1416036997 · ISBN-13: 978-1416036999
  • Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology by FCAT · Publisher: Thieme Medical Publishers; Bilingual edition (January 1, 2000) · Language: Latin/english · ISBN-10: 0865778086 · ISBN-13: 978-0865778085
  • Diagnostic and Surgical Imaging Anatomy: Brain, Head and Neck, Spine: Published by Amirsys · Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Int edition (June 1, 2006) · Language: English · ISBN-10: 1931884293 · ISBN-13: 978-1931884297

Anatomical parts

  • Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI]
  • Accessory nodes - Nodi accessorii
  • Agger nasi - Agger nasi
  • Ala of nose - Ala nasi
  • Alveolar process - Processus alveolaris
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Angle of mandible - Angulus mandibulae
  • Ansa cervicalis - Ansa cervicalis : Inferior root; Inferior limb - Radix inferior
  • Ansa cervicalis - Ansa cervicalis : Superior root; Superior limb - Radix superior
  • Anterior arch - Arcus anterior atlantis (Atlas [C I] - Atlas [C I])
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Superficial nodes; Anterior jugular nodes - Nodi superficiales; Nodi jugulares anteriores
  • Anterior jugular vein - Vena jugularis anterior
  • Anterior nasal spine - Spina nasalis anterior
  • Anterior superior alveolar branches - Rami alveolares superiores anteriores
  • Anterior surface - Facies anterior
  • Apex of nose; Tip of nose - Apex nasi
  • Apex of tongue; Tip of tongue - Apex linguae
  • Arch of cricoid cartilage - Arcus cartilaginis cricoideae
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Aryepiglottic fold - Plica aryepiglottica
  • Arytenoid cartilage - Cartilago arytenoidea
  • Ascending cervical artery - Arteria cervicalis ascendens
  • Ascending pharyngeal artery - Arteria pharyngea ascendens
  • Atrium of middle meatus - Atrium meatus medii
  • Auricular branch - Ramus auricularis (Posterior auricular nerve - Nervus auricularis posterior)
  • Auricularis anterior - Musculus auricularis anterior
  • Auricularis posterior - Musculus auricularis posterior
  • Auricularis superior - Musculus auricularis superior
  • Auriculotemporal nerve - Nervus auriculotemporalis
  • Autonomic division of nervous system - Divisio autonomica
  • Basilar artery - Arteria basilaris
  • Body of hyoid bone - Corpus ossis hyoidei
  • Body of mandible - Corpus mandibulae
  • Body of tongue - Corpus linguae
  • Bones; Skeletal system - Ossa; Systema skeletale
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Inferior trunk; Lower trunk - Truncus inferior
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Middle trunk - Truncus medius
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Roots - Radices (C5 - C5)
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Roots - Radices (C6)
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Roots - Radices (C7)
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Roots - Radices (C8)
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis : Superior trunk; Upper trunk - Truncus superior
  • Brachiocephalic trunk - Truncus brachiocephalicus
  • Brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Buccal branches - Rami buccales
  • Buccal nerve - Nervus buccalis
  • Buccinator - Musculus buccinator
  • Buccopharyngeal fascia - Fascia buccopharyngea
  • Canine tooth - Dens caninus
  • Caroticotympanic nerves - Nervi caroticotympanici
  • Carotid bifurcation - Bifurcatio carotidis
  • Carotid branch - Ramus sinus carotici
  • Carotid canal - Canalis caroticus
  • Carotid sheath - Vagina carotica
  • Carotid space - (Carotid space)
  • Cervical branch - Ramus colli; Ramus cervicalis
  • Cervical fascia - Fascia cervicalis; Fascia colli (Investing layer; Superficial layer - Lamina superficialis)
  • Cervical plexus - Plexus cervicalis
  • Cervicothoracic ganglion; Stellate ganglion - Ganglion cervicothoracicum; Ganglion stellatum
  • Choanae - Choanae
  • Chorda tympani - Chorda tympani
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Clivus - Clivus
  • Common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Common nasal meatus - Meatus nasi communis
  • Communicating branch of vagus with glossopharyngeal nerve - Ramus communicans nervus vagi cum nervus glossopharyngeo
  • Communicating branch with recurrent laryngeal nerve - Ramus communicans cum nervo laryngeo recurrente
  • Communicating branches with facial nerve - Rami communicantes cum nervo faciale
  • Condylar canal - Canalis condylaris
  • Condylar process - Processus condylaris
  • Conus elasticus; Cricovocal membrane - Conus elasticus
  • Corniculate cartilage - Cartilago corniculata
  • Corniculate tubercle - Tuberculum corniculatum
  • Coronal - Coronalis /Frontal - Frontalis
  • Costocervical trunk - Truncus costocervicalis
  • Cranial root; Vagal part - Radix cranialis; Pars vagalis (Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI])
  • Cricothyroid - Musculus cricothyroideus
  • Cricothyroid joint - Articulatio cricothyroidea
  • Cuneiform tubercle - Tuberculum cuneiforme
  • Danger space - Danger space
  • Deep parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei profundi : Infraauricular nodes - Nodi infraauriculares
  • Deep parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei profundi : Intraglandular nodes - Nodi intraglandulares
  • Deep parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei profundi : Preauricular nodes - Nodi preauriculares
  • Deep spaces of face and neck - Deep spaces of face and neck
  • Deep temporal nerves - Nervi temporales profundi
  • Dens - Dens axis (Axis [C II] - Axis [C II])
  • Depressor anguli oris - Musculus depressor anguli oris
  • Depressor labii inferioris - Musculus depressor labii inferioris
  • Depressor septi nasi - Musculus depressor septi nasi
  • Digastric - Musculus digastricus (Anterior belly - Venter anterior)
  • Digastric - Musculus digastricus (Posterior belly - Venter posterior)
  • Digastric branch - Ramus digastricus
  • Dorsum of nose - Dorsum nasi
  • Dorsum of tongue - Dorsum linguae
  • Epiglottic vallecula - Vallecula epiglottica
  • Epiglottis - Epiglottis
  • Ethmoid; Ethmoidal bone - Os ethmoidale
  • Ethmoidal bulla - Bulla ethmoidalis
  • Ethmoidal cells - Cellulae ethmoidales
  • Ethmoidal labyrinth - Labyrinthus ethmoidalis
  • External branch - Ramus externus (Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI])
  • External carotid artery - Arteria carotis externa
  • External jugular vein - Vena jugularis externa
  • External occipital protuberance - Protuberantia occipitalis externa
  • Facial artery - Arteria facialis
  • Facial muscles - Musculi faciei
  • Facial nerve [VII] - Nervus facialis [VII]
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales : Buccinator node - Nodus buccinatorius
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales : Malar node - Nodus malaris
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales : Mandibular node - Nodus mandibularis
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales : Nasolabial node - Nodus nasolabialis
  • Facial vein - Vena facialis
  • Fascia - Fascia
  • Foramen - Foramen
  • Foramen - Foramen caecum of tongue - Foramen - Foramen caecum linguae
  • Foramen - Foramen lacerum - Foramen - Foramen lacerum
  • Foramen - Foramen magnum - Foramen - Foramen magnum
  • Foramen - Foramen ovale - Foramen - Foramen ovale
  • Foramen - Foramen rotundum - Foramen - Foramen rotundum
  • Foramen - Foramen transversarium - Foramen - Foramen transversarium
  • Frenulum of tongue - Frenulum linguae
  • Frontal process - Processus frontalis
  • Geniculum - Geniculum
  • Genioglossus - Musculus genioglossus
  • Geniohyoid - Musculus geniohyoideus
  • Gingiva; Gum - Gingiva
  • Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Nervus glossopharyngeus [IX]
  • Glottis - Glottis
  • Great auricular nerve - Nervus auricularis magnus
  • Greater horn - Cornu majus
  • Greater occipital nerve - Nervus occipitalis major
  • Greater palatine foramen - Foramen - Foramen palatinum majus
  • Greater palatine nerve - Nervus palatinus major
  • Greater petrosal nerve - Nervus petrosus major
  • Hard palate - Palatum durum
  • Hide all - Hide all
  • Hide all bones - Hide all bones
  • Horizontal - Horizontalis
  • Horizontal plate - Lamina horizontalis (Palatine bone - Os palatinum)
  • Hyoepiglottic ligament - Ligamentum hyoepiglotticum
  • Hyoglossus - Musculus hyoglossus
  • Hypoglossal canal - Canalis nervi hypoglossi
  • Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Nervus hypoglossus [XII]
  • Iliocostalis cervicis - Musculus iliocostalis cervicis; Musculus iliocostalis colli
  • Incisive duct - Ductus incisivus
  • Incisor tooth - Dens incisivus
  • Inferior alveolar artery - Arteria alveolaris inferior
  • Inferior alveolar nerve - Nervus alveolaris inferior
  • Inferior articular process - Processus articularis inferior; Zygapophysis inferior
  • Inferior constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis inferior
  • Inferior dental plexus - Plexus dentalis inferior
  • Inferior longitudinal muscle - Musculus longitudinalis inferior
  • Inferior nasal concha - Concha nasi inferior
  • Inferior nasal meatus - Meatus nasi inferior
  • Inferior orbital fissure - Fissura orbitalis inferior
  • Inferior surface of tongue - Facies inferior linguae
  • Inferior thyroid artery - Arteria thyroidea inferior
  • Infraglottic cavity - Cavitas infraglottica
  • Infraorbital foramen - Foramen - Foramen infraorbitale
  • Infraorbital nerve - Nervus infraorbitalis
  • Infratemporal fossa - Fossa infratemporalis
  • Infratemporal surface - Facies infratemporalis
  • Interarytenoid notch - Incisura interarytenoidea
  • Intermediate nerve - Nervus intermedius
  • Internal acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus internus
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna : Cavernous part - Pars cavernosa
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna : Cervical part - Pars cervicalis
  • Internal carotid artery - Arteria carotis interna : Petrous part - Pars petrosa
  • Internal carotid nerve - Nervus caroticus internus
  • Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Intervertebral foramen - Foramen - Foramen intervertebrale
  • Jugular foramen - Foramen - Foramen jugulare
  • Jugular nerve - Nervus jugularis
  • Jugular notch; Suprasternal notch - Incisura jugularis
  • Jugular venous arch - Arcus venosus jugularis
  • Jugulodigastric nod - Nodus jugulodigastricus (Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Superior deep nodes - Nodi profundi superiores)
  • Juguloomohyoid node - Nodus juguloomohyoideus (Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Inferior deep nodes - Nodi profundi inferiores)
  • Labial commissure - Commissura labiorum
  • Lacrimal bone - Os lacrimale
  • Lacrimal sac - Saccus lacrimalis
  • Lamina - Lamina arcus vertebrae
  • Lamina of cricoid cartilage - Lamina cartilaginis cricoideae
  • Laryngeal inlet - Aditus laryngis
  • Laryngeal muscles - Musculi laryngis
  • Laryngeal ventricle - Ventriculus laryngis
  • Laryngeal vestibule - Vestibulum laryngis
  • Larynx - Larynx
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi (Middle - Medius)
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Inferior deep nodes - Nodi profundi inferiores
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Superficial nodes - Nodi superficiales
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales : Superior deep nodes - Nodi profundi superiores
  • Lateral cricoarytenoid - Musculus cricoarytenoideus lateralis
  • Lateral glossoepiglottic fold - Plica glossoepiglottica lateralis
  • Lateral mass - Massa lateralis atlantis (Atlas [C I] - Atlas [C I])
  • Lateral pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus lateralis (Lower head; Inferior head - Caput inferius)
  • Lateral pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus lateralis (Upper head; Superior head - Caput superius)
  • Lesser horn - Cornu minus
  • Lesser occipital nerve - Nervus occipitalis minor
  • Lesser palatine foramina - Foramina palatina minora
  • Lesser palatine nerves - Nervi palatini minores
  • Lesser petrosal nerve; Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion - Nervus petrosus minor; Radix parasympathica ganglii otici
  • Levator anguli oris - Musculus levator anguli oris
  • Levator labii superioris - Musculus levator labii superioris
  • Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi - Musculus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
  • Levator scapulae - Musculus levator scapulae
  • Levator veli palatini - Musculus levator veli palatini
  • Limen nasi - Limen nasi
  • Lingual artery - Arteria lingualis
  • Lingual branches - Rami linguales
  • Lingual nerve - Nervus lingualis
  • Lingual nodes - Nodi linguales
  • Lingual septum - Septum linguae
  • Lingual tonsil - Tonsilla lingualis
  • Lingual vein - Vena lingualis
  • Linguofacial trunk - Truncus linguofacialis
  • Longissimus capitis - Musculus longissimus capitis
  • Longissimus cervicis - Musculus longissimus cervicis; Musculus longissimus colli
  • Longus capitis - Musculus longus capitis
  • Longus colli - Musculus longus colli; Musculus longus cervicis
  • Lower lip - Labium inferius
  • Lymph nodes of head and neck - Nodi lymphoidei capitis et colli
  • M_Planes
  • Mandible - Mandibula
  • Mandibular canal - Canalis mandibulae
  • Mandibular dental arcade; Lower dental arcade - Arcus dentalis mandibularis; Arcus dentalis inferior
  • Mandibular foramen - Foramen - Foramen mandibulae
  • Mandibular fossa - Fossa mandibularis
  • Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3] - Nervus mandibularis [Vc; V3]
  • Manubrium of sternum - Manubrium sterni
  • Margin of tongue - Margo linguae
  • Marginal mandibular branch - Ramus marginalis mandibularis
  • Masseter - Musculus masseter (Deep part - Pars profunda)
  • Masseter - Musculus masseter (Superficial part - Pars superficialis)
  • Masseteric fascia - Fascia masseterica
  • Masseteric nerve - Nervus massetericus
  • Masticator space - Masticator space
  • Masticatory muscles - Musculi masticatorii
  • Mastoid nodes - Nodi mastoidei
  • Mastoid process - Processus mastoideus
  • Maxilla - Maxilla
  • Maxillary artery - Arteria maxillaris
  • Maxillary dental arcade; Upper dental arcade - Arcus dentalis maxillaris; Arcus dentalis superior
  • Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Nervus maxillaris[Vb; V2]
  • Maxillary sinus - Sinus maxillaris
  • Maxillary tuberosity - Tuber maxillae; Eminentia maxillae
  • Medial pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus medialis
  • Median glossoepiglottic fold - Plica glossoepiglottica mediana
  • Median sulcus of tongue - Sulcus medianus linguae
  • Mental foramen - Foramen - Foramen mentale
  • Mental nerve - Nervus mentalis
  • Mentalis - Musculus mentalis
  • Middle cervical cardiac nerve - Nervus cardiacus cervicalis medius
  • Middle cervical ganglion - Ganglion cervicale medium
  • Middle constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis medius
  • Middle nasal concha - Concha nasi media
  • Middle nasal meatus - Meatus nasi medius
  • Middle superior alveolar branch - Ramus alveolaris superior medius
  • Molar tooth - Dens molaris
  • Mucosal pharyngeal space - Mucosal pharyngeal space
  • Multifidus - Musculi multifidi
  • Muscles - Muscles
  • Muscles of back - Musculi dorsi
  • Muscles of neck - Musculi colli; Musculi cervicis
  • Muscles of tongue - Musculi linguae
  • Musculus uvulae - Musculus uvulae
  • Mylohyoid - Musculus mylohyoideus
  • Nasal bone - Os nasale
  • Nasal cavity - Cavitas nasi / Paranasal sinuses - Sinus paranasales
  • Nasal septum - Septum nasi
  • Nasal surface - Facies nasalis
  • Nasal vestibule - Vestibulum nasi
  • Nasalis - Musculus nasalis
  • Nasolacrimal duct - Ductus nasolacrimalis
  • Nasopalatine nerve - Nervus nasopalatinus
  • Nasopharynx - Pars nasalis pharyngis
  • Nerve - Nervus
  • Nerve of pterygoid canal - Nervus canalis pterygoidei
  • Nerve to external acoustic meatus - Nervus meatus acustici externi
  • Nerve to lateral pterygoid - Nervus pterygoideus lateralis
  • Nerve to medial pterygoid - Nervus pterygoideus medialis
  • Nerve to mylohyoid - Nervus mylohyoideus
  • Nerve to stapedius - Nervus stapedius
  • Nerve to tensor tympani - Nervus musculi tensoris tympani
  • Nerve to tensor veli palatini - Nervus musculi tensoris veli palatini
  • Oblique arytenoid - Musculus arytenoideus obliquus / Transverse arytenoid - Musculus arytenoideus transversus
  • Obliquus capitis inferior - Musculus obliquus capitis inferior
  • Obliquus capitis superior - Musculus obliquus capitis superior
  • Occipital artery - Arteria occipitalis
  • Occipital bone - Os occipitale
  • Occipital branch - Ramus occipitalis (Posterior auricular nerve - Nervus auricularis posterior)
  • Occipital condyle - Condylus occipitalis
  • Occipital nodes - Nodi occipitales
  • Oesophageal branches - Rami oesophagei (Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens)
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus : Cervical part - Pars cervicalis; Pars colli
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus/Trachea - Trachea/Thyroid gland - Glandula thyroidea
  • Omohyoid - Musculus omohyoideus (Inferior belly - Venter inferior)
  • Omohyoid - Musculus omohyoideus (Superior belly - Venter superior)
  • Opening of nasolacrimal duct - Apertura ductus nasolacrimalis
  • Opening of the maxillary sinus - Opening of the maxillary sinus
  • Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Nervus ophthalmicus [Va; V1]
  • Optic canal - Canalis opticus
  • Oral Part of the Pharynx  - Pars oralis pharyngis
  • Oral cavity - Cavitas oris
  • Orbicularis oculi - Musculus orbicularis oculi (Orbital part - Pars orbitalis)
  • Orbicularis oculi - Musculus orbicularis oculi (Palpebral part - Pars palpebralis)
  • Orbicularis oris - Musculus orbicularis oris
  • Orbital plate - Lamina orbitalis
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis
  • Orbital surface - Facies orbitalis (Greater wing - Ala major)
  • Other bones - Other bones
  • Otic ganglion - Ganglion oticum
  • Palatine glands - Glandulae palatinae
  • Palatine process - Processus palatinus
  • Palatine raphe - Raphe palati
  • Palatine tonsil - Tonsilla palatina
  • Palatoglossal arch; Anterior pillar of fauces - Arcus palatoglossus; Plica anterior faucium
  • Palatoglossus - Musculus palatoglossus
  • Palatopharyngeal arch; Posterior pillar of fauces - Arcus palatopharyngeus; Plica posterior faucium
  • Palatopharyngeus - Musculus palatopharyngeus
  • Parapharyngeal space; Lateral pharyngeal space - Spatium lateropharyngeum; Spatium pharyngeum laterale; Spatium parapharyngeum
  • Paratracheal nodes - Nodi paratracheales (Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi)
  • Parotid branches - Rami parotidei
  • Parotid duct - Ductus parotideus
  • Parotid fascia - Fascia parotidea
  • Parotid gland - Glandula parotidea
  • Parotid space - Parotid space
  • Pedicle - Pediculus arcus vertebrae
  • Perivertebral space : paraspinal_part - Perivertebral space : paraspinal_part
  • Perivertebral space : prevertebral_part - Perivertebral space : prevertebral_part
  • Perpendicular plate - Lamina perpendicularis
  • Perpendicular plate - Lamina perpendicularis (Palatine bone - Os palatinum)
  • Petrous part - Pars petrosa (Temporal bone - Os temporale)
  • Pharyngeal branch - Ramus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal branches - Rami pharyngei
  • Pharyngeal branches - Rami pharyngei (Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens)
  • Pharyngeal muscles; Muscle layer of pharynx - Musculi pharyngis
  • Pharyngeal nerve - Nervus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal opening of auditory tube - Ostium pharyngeum tubae auditivae; Ostium pharyngeum tubae auditoriae
  • Pharyngeal plexus - Plexus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal raphe - Raphe pharyngis
  • Pharyngeal recess - Recessus pharyngeus
  • Pharyngeal tonsil - Tonsilla pharyngea
  • Pharyngeal tubercle - Tuberculum pharyngeum
  • Pharyngobasilar fascia - Fascia pharyngobasilaris
  • Pharynx - Pharynx
  • Philtrum - Philtrum
  • Phrenic nerve - Nervus phrenicus
  • Piriform fossa; Piriform recess - Recessus piriformis
  • Platysma - Platysma
  • Posterior arch - Arcus posterior atlantis (Atlas [C I] - Atlas [C I])
  • Posterior auricular artery - Arteria auricularis posterior
  • Posterior auricular nerve - Nervus auricularis posterior
  • Posterior cervical space - Posterior cervical space
  • Posterior cricoarytenoid - Musculus cricoarytenoideus posterior
  • Posterior superior alveolar branches - Rami alveolares superiores posteriores
  • Preepiglottic fat body - Corpus adiposum preepiglotticum
  • Prelaryngeal nodes - Nodi prelaryngei (Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi)
  • Premolar tooth - Dens premolaris
  • Pretracheal layer - Lamina pretrachealis
  • Pretracheal nodes - Nodi pretracheales (Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi)
  • Prevertebral layer - Lamina prevertebralis
  • Pterygoid plexus - Plexus pterygoideus
  • Pterygoid process - Processus pterygoideus (Lateral plate - Lamina lateralis)
  • Pterygoid process - Processus pterygoideus (Medial plate - Lamina medialis)
  • Pterygomandibular raphe - Raphe pterygomandibularis
  • Pterygopalatine fossa - Fossa pterygopalatina
  • Pterygopalatine ganglion - Ganglion pterygopalatinum
  • Quadrangular membrane - Membrana quadrangularis
  • Ramus of mandible - Ramus mandibulae
  • Rectus capitis anterior - Musculus rectus capitis anterior
  • Rectus capitis lateralis - Musculus rectus capitis lateralis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major - Musculus rectus capitis posterior major
  • Rectus capitis posterior minor - Musculus rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens
  • Retromandibular vein - Vena retromandibularis
  • Retromaxillozygomatic space - Retromaxillozygomatic space
  • Retropharyngeal nodes - Nodi retropharyngeales (Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi)
  • Retropharyngeal space - Spatium retropharyngeum
  • Rhomboid major - Musculus rhomboideus major
  • Rhomboid minor - Musculus rhomboideus minor
  • Risorius - Musculus risorius
  • Root of nose - Radix nasi
  • Root of tongue - Radix linguae
  • Rotatores cervicis - Musculi rotatores cervicis; Musculi rotatores colli
  • Sagittal - Sagittalis
  • Salpingopalatine fold - Plica salpingopalatina
  • Salpingopharyngeal fold - Plica salpingopharyngea
  • Salpingopharyngeus - Musculus salpingopharyngeus
  • Scalenus anterior; Anterior scalene - Musculus scalenus anterior
  • Scalenus medius; Middle scalene - Musculus scalenus medius
  • Scalenus posterior; Posterior scalene - Musculus scalenus posterior
  • Sella turcica - Sella turcica
  • Semilunar hiatus - Hiatus semilunaris
  • Semispinalis capitis - Musculus semispinalis capitis
  • Semispinalis cervicis - Musculus semispinalis cervicis; Musculus semispinalis colli
  • Serratus posterior superior - Musculus serratus posterior superior
  • Show all - Show all
  • Show all bones - Show all bones
  • Soft palate - Palatum molle;velum palatinum
  • Sphenoethmoidal recess - Recessus sphenoethmoidalis
  • Sphenoid; Sphenoidal bone - Os sphenoidale
  • Sphenoidal sinus - Sinus sphenoidalis
  • Sphenopalatine foramen - Foramen - Foramen sphenopalatinum
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C1
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C2
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C3 - C3
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C4 - C4
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C5 - C5
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C6
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C7
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis C8
  • Spinal nerve - Nervus spinalis T1 - T1
  • Spinal nerves - Nervi spinales : Posterior rami; Dorsal rami - Rami posteriores; Rami dorsales
  • Spinal root; Spinal part - Radix spinalis; Pars spinalis (Accessory nerve [XI] - Nervus accessorius [XI])
  • Spinalis cervicis - Musculus spinalis cervicis; Musculus spinalis colli
  • Spinalis thoracis - Musculus spinalis thoracis
  • Spinous process - Processus spinosus
  • Splenius capitis - Musculus splenius capitis
  • Splenius cervicis - Musculus splenius cervicis; Musculus splenius colli
  • Squamous part - Pars squamosa
  • Sternocleidomastoid - Musculus sternocleidomastoideus
  • Sternocleidomastoid vein - Vena sternocleidomastoidea
  • Sternohyoid - Musculus sternohyoideus
  • Sternothyroid - Musculus sternothyroideus
  • Styloglossus - Musculus styloglossus
  • Stylohyoid - Musculus stylohyoideus
  • Stylohyoid branch - Ramus stylohyoideus
  • Styloid process - Processus styloideus
  • Stylomastoid foramen - Foramen - Foramen stylomastoideum
  • Stylopharyngeal branch - Ramus musculi stylopharyngei
  • Stylopharyngeus - Musculus stylopharyngeus
  • Subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Sublingual gland - Glandula sublingualis
  • Sublingual space - Sublingual space
  • Submandibular duct - Ductus submandibularis
  • Submandibular ganglion - Ganglion submandibulare
  • Submandibular gland - Glandula submandibularis
  • Submandibular nodes - Nodi submandibulares
  • Submandibular space - Submandibular space
  • Submental nodes - Nodi submentales
  • Suboccipital nerve - Nervus suboccipitalis
  • Superficial parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei superficiales
  • Superficial temporal artery - Arteria temporalis superficialis
  • Superficial temporal branches - Rami temporales superficiales
  • Superficial temporal veins - Venae temporales superficiales
  • Superior articular process - Processus articularis superior; Zygapophysis superior
  • Superior cervical cardiac branches - Rami cardiaci cervicales superiores
  • Superior cervical cardiac nerve - Nervus cardiacus cervicalis superior
  • Superior cervical ganglion - Ganglion cervicale superius
  • Superior constrictor - Musculus constrictor pharyngis superior
  • Superior dental plexus - Plexus dentalis superior
  • Superior laryngeal artery - Arteria laryngea superior
  • Superior laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus superior
  • Superior laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus superior (External branch - Ramus externus)
  • Superior laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus superior (Internal branch - Ramus internus)
  • Superior longitudinal muscle - Musculus longitudinalis superior
  • Superior nasal concha - Concha nasi superior
  • Superior nasal meatus - Meatus nasi superior
  • Superior thyroid artery - Arteria thyroidea superior
  • Superior thyroid notch - Incisura thyroidea superior
  • Superior thyroid vein - Vena thyroidea superior
  • Supraclavicular nerves - Nervi supraclaviculares
  • Supraclavicular nodes - Nodi supraclaviculares
  • Suprasternal space - Spatium suprasternale
  • Supratonsillar fossa - Fossa supratonsillaris
  • Sympathetic root; Deep petrosal nerve - Radix sympathica; Nervus petrosus profundus
  • Sympathetic trunk - Truncus sympathicus
  • Temporal bone - Os temporale
  • Temporal branches - Rami temporales
  • Temporal fascia - Fascia temporalis
  • Temporal fossa - Fossa temporalis
  • Temporal process - Processus temporalis
  • Temporalis; Temporal muscle - Musculus temporalis
  • Tensor veli palatini - Musculus tensor veli palatini
  • Terminal sulcus of tongue - Sulcus terminalis linguae
  • Third occipital nerve - Nervus occipitalis tertius
  • Thyroarytenoid - Musculus thyroarytenoideus
  • Thyrocervical trunk - Truncus thyrocervicalis
  • Thyroepiglottic ligament - Ligamentum thyroepiglotticum
  • Thyrohyoid - Musculus thyrohyoideus
  • Thyrohyoid membrane - Membrana thyrohyoidea
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea : Inferior horn - Cornu inferius
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea : Lamina - Lamina
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea : Laryngeal prominence - Prominentia laryngea
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea : Superior horn - Cornu superius
  • Thyroid gland - Glandula thyroidea : Isthmus o thyroid gland - Isthmus glandulae thyroideae
  • Thyroid gland - Glandula thyroidea : Lobe - Lobus
  • Thyroid nodes - Nodi thyroidei (Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores : Deep nodes - Nodi profundi)
  • Thyrolinguofacial trunk - Thyrolinguofacial trunk
  • Tonsillar branches - Rami tonsillares
  • Tonsillar sinus; Tonsillar fossa; Tonsillar bed - Fossa tonsillaris; Sinus tonsillaris
  • Torus levatorius - Torus levatorius
  • Torus tubarius - Torus tubarius
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Tracheal branches - Rami tracheales (Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens)
  • Transverse cervical artery - Arteria transversa colli; Arteria transversa cervicis
  • Transverse cervical nerve - Nervus transversus colli; Nervus transversus cervicalis
  • Transverse facial artery - Arteria transversa faciei
  • Transverse muscle - Musculus transversus linguae/Vertical muscle - Musculus verticalis linguae
  • Transverse process - Processus transversus
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Trigeminal ganglion - Ganglion trigeminale
  • Trigeminal nerve [V] - Nervus trigeminus [V]
  • True ribs [I-VII] - Costae verae [I-VII]
  • Tubal branch - Ramus tubarius
  • Tympanic nerve - Nervus tympanicus
  • Tympanic part - Pars tympanica
  • Tympanic plexus - Plexus tympanicus
  • Upper lip - Labium superius
  • Uvula - Uvula palatina
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Veins - Venae
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis : Atlantic part - Pars atlantica
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis : Cervical part - Pars transversaria; Pars cervicalis
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis : Intracranial part - Pars intracranialis
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis : Prevertebral part - Pars prevertebralis
  • Vertebral body - Corpus vertebrae
  • Vertebral column - Columna vertebralis
  • Vertebral foramen - Foramen - Foramen vertebrale
  • Vertebral ganglion - Ganglion vertebrale
  • Vestibular fold - Plica vestibularis / Vestibular ligament - Ligamentum vestibulare
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] - Nervus vestibulocochlearis [VIII]
  • Visceral space of the neck - Visceral space of the neck
  • Vocal fold - Plica vocalis / Vocal ligament - Ligamentum vocale
  • Vocalis - Musculus vocalis
  • Vomer - Vomer
  • Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum
  • Zygomatic branches - Rami zygomatici
  • Zygomatic nerve - Nervus zygomaticus
  • Zygomatic process - Processus zygomaticus
  • Zygomaticus major - Musculus zygomaticus major
  • Zygomaticus minor - Musculus zygomaticus minor
  • laryngeal part of the pharynx - Pars laryngea pharyngis

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