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Anatomy of the petrous bone (CT) - Atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the brain, face, and neck

Images and anatomical references

We have created an atlas of the temporal bone which is an educational tool for studying the normal anatomy of the petrous bone based on an MDCT exam of the axial and coronal of the ear and petrous bone. Anatomical structures are visible as interactive labelled images.

 

Anatomy of the external and internal ear (temporal bone) : loading page

 

 

Cross sectional anatomy: CT of the petrous bone

 

An axial and coronal bone multislice computed tomographic imaging of the temporal bone was performed on a normal subject.
Data and DICOM images archived on the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were processed and exported as JPEG images. Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with suitable functionality and user interface for exploration of the temporal bone and skull base.
Anatomical structures have been labelled according to the Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Interactive atlas of the temporal bone and ear : axial slice wtith  all structures labeled

 

 

Anatomy of the temporal bone: how to visualize anatomic labels

 

This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for residents and medical students and especially for neuro-radiologists and otolaryngologists.
It provides images in the axial and coronal planes, allowing the user to review and learn anatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing a useful teaching resource. The test mode allows an evaluation of user progress.

 

The horizontal menu allows access to the groups of anatomical structures:

  • External ear
  • Ossicles
  • Tympanic cavity
  • Bony labyrinth anterior
  • Bony labyrinth posterior
  • Temporal bone
  • Nerves

 

Coronal anatomy of the ear : ossicles, tympanic cavity, bony labyrinth...

 

As the cursor is moved over an anatomic area, that area is labelled and highlighted: this allows to the viewer to study the bones of the skull base such as the petrous part of the temporal bone.
The CT is a particularly powerful exam for studying the five bony parts of the T-bone:

  • Squamous : forms the lateral wall of the middle cranial fossa
  • Mastoid
  • Petrous : contains the inner ear, internal auditory canal (IAC), petrous apex
  • Tympanic : forms most of the bony external ear
  • Styloid process

The vertical left menu provides cross references with axial, coronal and sagittal images of the T-bone, with anatomical graphics based on a three dimensional (3D) model.

 

3D illustration of the cochlea and internal ear based on computed tomography

Anatomical parts

  • Aditus to mastoid antrum - Aditus ad antrum mastoideum
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior bony ampulla - Ampulla ossea anterior
  • Anterior limb - Crus anterius
  • Anterior process - Processus anterior
  • Anterior semicircular canal - Canalis semicircularis anterior
  • Antitragus - Antitragus
  • Arcuate eminence - Eminentia arcuata
  • Articular tubercle - Tuberculum articulare
  • Auditory tube - Tuba auditiva
  • Auricle; Pinna - Auricula
  • Base of cochlea - Basis cochleae
  • Base of stapes; Footplate - Basis stapedis
  • Body of incus - Corpus incudis
  • Body of sphenoid bone - Corpus sphenoidale
  • Carotid canal - Canalis caroticus
  • Cavity of concha - Cavitas conchae; Cavum conchae
  • Chorda tympani - Chorda tympani
  • Cochlea - Cochlea
  • Cochlear aqueduct - Aqueductus cochleae
  • Cochlear cupula - Cupula cochleae
  • Cochlear nerve - Nervus cochlearis
  • Common bony limb - Crus osseum commune
  • Condylar process - Processus condylaris
  • Crest of round window - Crista fenestrae cochleae
  • Crus of helix - Crus helicis
  • Epitympanic recess - Recessus epitympanicus
  • Epitympanum
  • External acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus externus
  • External acoustic opening - Porus acusticus externus
  • External ear - Auris externa
  • Facial nerve (f1) [VII] (labyrinthic part) - Nervus facialis (f1) [VII]
  • Facial nerve (f2) [VII] (tympanic part) - Nervus facialis (f2) [VII]
  • Facial nerve (f3) [VII] (mastoid part) - Nervus facialis (f3) [VII]
  • Falciform crest - Falciform crest
  • Foramen - Foramen lacerum - Foramen - Foramen lacerum
  • Foramen - Foramen ovale - Foramen - Foramen ovale
  • Foramen - Foramen spinosum - Foramen - Foramen spinosum
  • Fossa of oval window - Fossula fenestrae vestibuli
  • Fossa of round window - Fossula fenestrae cochleae
  • Geniculate ganglion - Ganglion geniculi; Ganglion geniculatum
  • Greater petrosal nerve - Nervus petrosus major
  • Groove for greater petrosal nerve - Sulcus nervi petrosi majoris
  • Groove for lesser petrosal nerve - Sulcus nervi petrosi minoris
  • Groove for sigmoid sinus - Sulcus sinus sigmoidei
  • Groove for superior petrosal sinus - Sulcus sinus petrosi superioris
  • Handle of malleus - Manubrium mallei
  • Head of malleus - Caput mallei
  • Head of stapes - Caput stapedis
  • Helix - Helix
  • Hypoglossal canal - Canalis nervi hypoglossi
  • Hypotympanum - Hypotympanumum
  • Inferior part of vestibular nerve - Pars inferior
  • Intermediate nerve - Nervus intermedius
  • Internal acoustic meatus - Meatus acusticus internus
  • Internal acoustic opening - Porus acusticus internus
  • Jugular foramen - Foramen - Foramen jugulare
  • Jugular fossa - Fossa jugularis
  • Jugular wall; Floor - Paries jugularis
  • Lateral bony ampulla - Ampulla ossea lateralis
  • Lateral process - Processus lateralis
  • Lateral semicircular canal - Canalis semicircularis lateralis
  • Lenticular process - Processus lenticularis
  • Lobule of auricle; Lobe of ear - Lobulus auriculae
  • Long limb of incus - Crus longum
  • Mandibular fossa - Fossa mandibularis
  • Mastoid antrum - Antrum mastoideum
  • Mastoid cells - Cellulae mastoideae
  • Mastoid process - Processus mastoideus
  • Mesotympanum
  • Modiolus of cochlea - Modiolus cochleae
  • Neck of malleus - Collum mallei
  • Nerve to stapedius - Nervus stapedius
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • Occipital bone - Os occipitale
  • Opening of cochlear canaliculus - Apertura canaliculi cochleae
  • Opening of vestibular canaliculus - Apertura canaliculi vestibuli
  • Ossicles - Ossicles
  • Other structures - Other structures
  • Oval window - Fenestra vestibuli
  • Petro-mastoid canal
  • Petrous part - Pars petrosa
  • Posterior bony ampulla - Ampulla ossea posterior
  • Posterior limb - Crus posterius
  • Posterior semicircular canal - Canalis semicircularis posterior
  • Prominence of facial canal - Prominentia canalis facialis
  • Prominence of lateral semicircular canal - Prominentia canalis semicircularis lateralis
  • Promontory - Promontorium
  • Protympanum - Protympanumum
  • Pyramidal eminence - Eminentia pyramidalis
  • Ramus of mandible - Ramus mandibulae
  • Round window - Fenestra cochleae
  • Short limb - Crus breve
  • Sinus tympani - Sinus tympani
  • Spine of sphenoid bone - Spina ossis sphenoidalis
  • Squamous part - Pars squamosa
  • Stapedius - Musculus stapedius
  • Styloid process - Processus styloideus
  • Stylomastoid foramen - Foramen - Foramen stylomastoideum
  • Subarcuate fossa - Fossa subarcuata
  • Superior part of vestibular nerve - Pars superior
  • Tegmen tympani - Tegmen tympani
  • Temporal bone - Os temporale
  • Tensor tympani - Musculus tensor tympani
  • Tragus - Tragus
  • Trigeminal impression - Impressio trigeminalis
  • Tympanic canaliculus - Canaliculus tympanicus
  • Tympanic cavity - Cavitas tympani
  • Tympanic cells - Cellulae tympanicae
  • Tympanic membrane - Membrana tympanica
  • Tympanic nerve - Nervus tympanicus
  • Tympanic part - Pars tympanica
  • Vestibular canaliculus - Canaliculus vestibuli
  • Vestibular ganglion - Ganglion vestibulare
  • Vestibular labyrinth - Labyrinthus vestibularis
  • Vestibule - Vestibulum
  • Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] - Nervus vestibulocochlearis [VIII]
  • Wall of Gellé - Paries (Gellé)
  • Zygomatic process - Processus zygomaticus

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