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Anatomy of the ankle and foot (MRI) - atlas of the human body using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, Denis Hoa

Published on Monday 25 August 2008

SECTION: Musculoskeletal anatomy (upper and lower extremities)

Images and anatomical references

Anatomy of the whole human body : sagittal cross section of the ankle and foot based on MRI showing ankle joint, and tendos (calcaneal tendo, tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus and brevis, flexor digitorum longus...)

 

The cross sectional human anatomic atlas of the ankle and foot is a new tool based on MR images of the human body.
Anatomical structures of the ankle and foot and particular regions (major joints) are visible as dynamic labelled images.

 

Anatomy of the ankle and the foot on MRI : loading page of this interactive atlas of gross anatomy

 

Cross sectional anatomy: MRI of the ankle and feet

 

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a normal subject; with spin-echo T1 weighted images and spin-echo fat-saturated proton density weighted images (3 usual planes used for osteo-articular imaging: axial, coronal, and sagittal).
From our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System), data and DICOM images were exported as JPEG images. Minor changes have been made with Adobe Photoshop, and then, interactivity such as labelled images and dynamic were added with Adobe Flash. This allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with a new functionality and user interface for exploration of the ankle and foot anatomy.

 

Cross section of the foot with anatomical structures labeled as arteries, muscles (dorsal interossei, plantar interossei, lombrical, extensor digitorum brevus), nerves, ligament, bones...

 

This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for physicians, anatomists, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. It is also a fundamental communication tool to teach patients anatomy and pathology.

It provides access to an atlas and to images in the axial planes, allowing the user to learn and review orthopaedic anatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource.

We used the Terminlogia Anatomica to create anatomic labels. This terminology is the international standard on human anatomy (it supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica since 1998). It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA).

 

Anatomy of the lower limb (hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot): how to visualize anatomic labels

 

The horizontal menu gives access to groups of anatomical structures that can be chosen by the user:

  •  Bones
  •  Joints
  •  Ligaments
  •  Muscles
  •  Tendons
  •  Fascia
  •  Arteries
  •  Veins
  •  Nerves

 

Cross sectional anatomy of the ankle with all anatomical structures labeled (here you may see tendos as fibularis brevus, fibularis longus, extensor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus.

 

As the cursor is moved over a particular area, that region is highlighted and labelled: anterior and posterior region of the leg, posterior and anterior ankle region, metatarsal region, plantar region.

The vertical left menu provides cross-references and a 3D medical illustration of the foot skeleton.

 

Tear lines represent the main joints of ankle and foot:

  •  Ankle joint
  •  Transverse tarsal joint
  •  Tarsometatarsal joints

 

Medica picture of ankle and foot based on 3D model showing bones as tibia, fibula, navicular, cuboid, calcaneus, cuneiform, metatarsals.

 

The test mode allows comprehensive evaluation of study progress.


Anatomical parts

  • Abductor digiti minimi - Musculus abductor digiti minimi
  • Abductor hallucis - Musculus abductor hallucis
  • Abductor hallucis - Musculus abductor hallucis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Adductor hallucis - Musculus adductor hallucis (Oblique head - Caput obliquum)
  • Adductor hallucis - Musculus adductor hallucis (Transverse head - Caput transversum)
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Ankle joint - Articulatio talocruralis
  • Ankle region - Regio tarsalis (Anterior - Anterior)
  • Ankle region - Regio tarsalis (Posterior - Posterior)
  • Anterior facet for calcaneus - Facies articularis calcanea anterior
  • Anterior region of leg - Regio cruris anterior
  • Anterior talar articular surface - Facies articularis talaris anterior
  • Anterior talocrural region; Anterior ankle region - Regio talocruralis anterior
  • Anterior talofibular ligament - Ligamentum talofibulare anterius (Lateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale laterale)
  • Anterior tibial artery - Arteria tibialis anterior
  • Anterior tibial veins - Venae tibiales anteriores
  • Anterior tibiofibular ligament - Anterior tibiofibular ligament
  • Anterior tibiotalar part - Pars tibiotalaris anterior (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Articular surface for cuboid - Facies articularis cuboidea
  • Base - Basis ossis metatarsi
  • Body - Corpus tali
  • Bones; Skeletal system - Ossa; Systema skeletale
  • Calcaneal branches - Rami calcanei
  • Calcaneal process - Processus calcaneus
  • Calcaneal sulcus - Sulcus calcanei
  • Calcaneal tendon - Tendo calcaneus
  • Calcaneal tuberosity - Tuber calcanei
  • Calcaneocuboid joint - Articulatio calcaneocuboidea
  • Calcaneofibular ligament - Ligamentum calcaneofibulare (Lateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale laterale)
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Bones - Os)
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Foramina - Foramina)
  • Cuboid - Os cuboideum
  • Cuneonavicular joint - Articulatio cuneonavicularis
  • Deep branch - Ramus profundus (Medial plantar artery - Arteria plantaris medialis)
  • Deep fibular nerve; Deep peroneal nerve - Nervus fibularis profundus; Nervus peroneus profundus
  • Deep fibular nerve; Deep peroneal nerve - Nervus fibularis profundus; Nervus peroneus profundus (Lateral branch - Ramus lateralis)
  • Deep fibular nerve; Deep peroneal nerve - Nervus fibularis profundus; Nervus peroneus profundus (Medial branch - Ramus medialis)
  • Deep plantar arch - Arcus plantaris profundus
  • Deep plantar artery - Arteria plantaris profunda
  • Diagrams - Diagrams
  • Dorsal artery of foot - Arteria dorsalis pedis
  • Dorsal digital nerves of foot - Nervi digitales dorsales pedis
  • Dorsal interossei - Musculi interossei dorsales
  • Dorsal venous arch of foot - Arcus venosus dorsalis pedis
  • Dorsum of foot; Dorsal region of foot - Dorsum pedis; Regio dorsalis pedis
  • Extensor digitorum brevis - Musculus extensor digitorum brevis
  • Extensor digitorum brevis - Musculus extensor digitorum brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor digitorum longus - Musculus extensor digitorum longus
  • Extensor digitorum longus - Musculus extensor digitorum longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor hallucis brevis - Musculus extensor hallucis brevis
  • Extensor hallucis brevis - Musculus extensor hallucis brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor hallucis longus - Musculus extensor hallucis longus
  • Extensor hallucis longus - Musculus extensor hallucis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Fascia - Fasciae
  • Fibula - Fibula
  • Fibular notch - Incisura fibularis
  • Fibular trochlea; Peroneal trochlea; Peroneal tubercle - Trochlea fibularis; Trochlea peronealis
  • Fibularis brevis - Musculus fibularis brevis
  • Fibularis brevis - Musculus fibularis brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Fibularis longus - Musculus fibularis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor digiti minimi brevis - Musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis
  • Flexor digitorum brevis - Musculus flexor digitorum brevis
  • Flexor digitorum longus - Musculus flexor digitorum longus
  • Flexor digitorum longus - Musculus flexor digitorum longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor hallucis brevis - Musculus flexor hallucis brevis (Lateral head - Caput laterale)
  • Flexor hallucis brevis - Musculus flexor hallucis brevis (Medial head - Caput mediale)
  • Flexor hallucis longus - Musculus flexor hallucis longus
  • Flexor hallucis longus - Musculus flexor hallucis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor retinaculum - Retinaculum musculorum flexorum
  • Great saphenous vein - Vena saphena magna
  • Groove for tendon of fibularis longus; Groove for tendon of peroneus longus - Sulcus tendinis musculi fibularis longi; Sulcus tendinis musculi peronei longi
  • Groove for tendon of flexor hallucis longus - Sulcus tendinis musculi flexoris hallucis longi
  • Head - Caput ossis metatarsi
  • Head - Caput tali
  • Heel region - Regio calcanea
  • Hide - Hide
  • Inferior extensor retinaculum - Retinaculum musculorum extensorum inferius
  • Inferior fibular retinaculum; Inferior peroneal retinaculum - Retinaculum musculorum fibularium inferius; Retinaculum musculorum peroneorum inferius
  • Intercuneiform joints - Articulationes intercuneiformes
  • Intermediate cuneiform; Middle cuneiform - Os cuneiforme intermedium
  • Intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus dorsalis intermedius
  • Interosseous membrane of leg - Membrana interossea cruris
  • Joint - Junctura
  • Lateral calcaneal branches - Rami calcanei laterales
  • Lateral cuneiform - Os cuneiforme laterale
  • Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus dorsalis lateralis
  • Lateral malleolar facet - Facies malleolaris lateralis
  • Lateral malleolus - Malleolus lateralis
  • Lateral marginal vein - Vena marginalis lateralis
  • Lateral plantar artery - Arteria plantaris lateralis
  • Lateral plantar nerve - Nervus plantaris lateralis
  • Lateral process - Processus lateralis tuberis calcanei
  • Lateral tarsal artery - Arteria tarsalis lateralis
  • Lateral tubercle - Tuberculum laterale
  • Ligaments - Ligamenta
  • Lumbricals - Musculi lumbricales
  • Malleolar fossa - Fossa malleoli lateralis
  • Malleolar groove - Sulcus malleolaris
  • Medial calcaneal branches - Rami calcanei mediales
  • Medial cuneiform - Os cuneiforme mediale
  • Medial dorsal cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus dorsalis medialis
  • Medial malleolar facet - Facies malleolaris medialis
  • Medial malleolus - Malleolus medialis
  • Medial marginal vein - Vena marginalis medialis
  • Medial plantar artery - Arteria plantaris medialis
  • Medial plantar nerve - Nervus plantaris medialis
  • Medial process - Processus medialis tuberis calcanei
  • Medial tarsal arteries - Arteriae tarsales mediales
  • Medial tubercle - Tuberculum mediale
  • Metatarsal region - Regio metatarsalis
  • Metatarsals [I-V] - Ossa metatarsi [I-V] (1)
  • Middle talar articular surface - Facies articularis talaris media
  • Muscles; Muscular system - Musculi; Systema musculare
  • Navicular - Os naviculare
  • Navicular articular surface - Facies articularis navicularis
  • Neck - Collum tali
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • PD-SPIR - PD-SPIR
  • Plantar aponeurosis - Aponeurosis plantaris
  • Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament; Spring ligament - Ligamentum calcaneonaviculare plantare
  • Plantar interossei - Musculi interossei plantares
  • Posterior calcaneal articular facet - Facies articularis calcanea posterior
  • Posterior process - Processus posterior tali
  • Posterior region of leg - Regio cruris posterior
  • Posterior talar articular surface - Facies articularis talaris posterior
  • Posterior talocrural region; Posterior ankle region - Regio talocruralis posterior
  • Posterior talofibular ligament - Ligamentum talofibulare posterius (Lateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale laterale)
  • Posterior tibial artery - Arteria tibialis posterior
  • Posterior tibial veins - Venae tibiales posteriores
  • Posterior tibiofibular ligament - Ligamentum tibiofibulare posterius
  • Posterior tibiotalar part - Pars tibiotalaris posterior (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Quadratus plantae; Flexor accessorius - Musculus quadratus plantae; Musculus flexor accessorius
  • Saphenous nerve - Nervus saphenus
  • Sesamoid bones - Ossa sesamoidea
  • Shaft; Body - Corpus ossis metatarsi
  • Small saphenous vein; Short saphenous vein - Vena saphena parva
  • Sole; Plantar region - Planta; Regio plantaris
  • Soleus - Musculus soleus
  • Sulcus tali - Sulcus tali
  • Superficial branch - Ramus superficialis (Medial plantar artery - Arteria plantaris medialis)
  • Superior extensor retinaculum - Retinaculum musculorum extensorum superius
  • Superior facet - Facies superior
  • Superior fibular retinaculum; Superior peroneal retinaculum - Retinaculum musculorum fibularium superius; Retinaculum musculorum peroneorum superius
  • Sural nerve - Nervus suralis
  • Sustentaculum tali; Talar shelf - Sustentaculum tali
  • T1 - T1w - T1 - T1w
  • Talocalcaneonavicular joint - Articulatio talocalcaneonavicularis
  • Tarsal sinus - Sinus tarsi
  • Tarsometatarsal joints - Articulationes tarsometatarsales
  • Tendon - Tendo
  • Tibia - Tibia
  • Tibial nerve - Nervus tibialis
  • Tibialis anterior - Musculus tibialis anterior (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Tibialis posterior - Musculus tibialis posterior (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Tibiocalcaneal part - Pars tibiocalcanea (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Tibionavicular part - Pars tibionavicularis (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Transverse tarsal joint - Articulatio tarsi transversa
  • Trochlea of talus - Trochlea tali
  • Tuberosity - Tuberositas ossis navicularis
  • Tuberosity of cuboid - Tuberositas ossis cuboidei
  • Veins - Vena
  • Weightings - Weightings

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