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MRI of the lower extremity anatomy - atlas of the human body using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Monday 25 August 2008

SECTION: Musculoskeletal anatomy (upper and lower extremities)

Images and anatomical references

The cross sectional human anatomic atlas of the lower limb is an interactive tool based on MR axial images of the human leg.

 

Atlas of anatomy of the whole human body : loading page  of the lower limb anatomy (MR)

 

Anatomical structures of the lower limb (hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot) and particular regions (compartment of the lower limb) are visible as dynamic labelled images.

 

Cross sectional anatomy of the hip : axial slice of MRI with all anatomical structures labeled.

 

Cross sectional anatomy: MRI of the lower limb

 

A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a healthy subject; with an axial spin-echo T1 weighted acquisition covering the entire human leg.

Anatomy of the thigh : anterior and posterior muscular compartment, femur, femoral artery and vein, siatic and femoral nerve, saphenous vein

 

From a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System), data and DICOM images were exported as JPEG images. The images were resized and colours were added with Adobe Photoshop. Adobe Flash allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with an amazing functionality and user interface for exploration of the human skeleton anatomy.

This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for physicians, anatomists, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists. It is also a fundamental communication tool to teach patients anatomy and pathology.

It provides access to an atlas and to images in the axial planes, allowing the user to learn and review orthopaedic anatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource.

We used the Terminologia Anatomica to create anatomic labels. This terminology is the international standard on human anatomy (it supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica since 1998). It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA).

 

Gross anatomy of the human body : popliteal fossa with all anatomical structures in medical imaging (mr) : arteries, muscles, nerves, bones, veins, tendos...

 

Anatomy of the lower limb (hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot): how to visualize anatomic labels

 

The horizontal menu gives access to groups of anatomical structures that can be chosen by the user:

  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Muscles
  • Ligaments
  • Tendons
  • Bones
  • Nerves

 

Cross section of the leg : muscular compartment, bones (tibia, fibula) and muscles

 

As the cursor is moved over a particular compartment of the lower thigh or the leg, that compartment is highlighted and labelled: anterior, medial, lateral or posterior compartment.

The vertical left menu provides an illustration of a lower limb skeleton based on a three dimensional (3D) model that simplifies access to the anatomical regions.

The test mode allows comprehensive evaluation of user progress.


Anatomical parts

  • Abductor digiti minimi - Musculus abductor digiti minimi
  • Abductor hallucis - Musculus abductor hallucis
  • Adductor brevis - Musculus adductor brevis
  • Adductor hallucis - Musculus adductor hallucis
  • Adductor longus - Musculus adductor longus
  • Adductor magnus - Musculus adductor magnus
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Ankle - Tarsus
  • Anterior branch - Ramus anterior
  • Anterior compartment of leg - Compartimentum cruris anterius
  • Anterior compartment of thigh - Compartimentum femoris anterius
  • Anterior cruciate ligament - Ligamentum cruciatum anterius
  • Anterior inferior iliac spine - Spina iliaca anterior inferior
  • Anterior superior iliac spine - Spina iliaca anterior superior
  • Anterior talofibular ligament - Ligamentum talofibulare anterius
  • Anterior tibial artery - Arteria tibialis anterior
  • Anterior tibial veins - Venae tibiales anteriores
  • Anterior tibiofibular ligament - Ligamentum tibiofibulare anterius
  • Anterior tibiotalar part - Pars tibiotalaris anterior (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Biceps femoris - Musculus biceps femoris
  • Biceps femoris - Musculus biceps femoris Long head - Caput longum
  • Biceps femoris - Musculus biceps femoris Short head - Caput breve
  • Bones - Os
  • Calcaneal tendon - Tendo calcaneus
  • Calcaneal tuberosity - Tuber calcanei
  • Calcaneofibular ligament - Ligamentum calcaneofibulare
  • Calcaneus - Calcaneus
  • Common fibular nerve - Nervus fibularis communis
  • Common iliac artery - Arteria iliaca communis
  • Common iliac vein - Vena iliaca communis
  • Cuboid - Os cuboideum
  • Deep artery of thigh - Arteria profunda femoris
  • Deep fibular nerve; Deep peroneal nerve - Nervus fibularis profundus; Nervus peroneus profundus
  • Distal phalanx - Phalanx distalis
  • Dorsal artery of foot - Arteria dorsalis pedis
  • Dorsal interossei - Musculi interossei dorsales
  • Extensor digitorum brevis - Musculus extensor digitorum brevis
  • Extensor digitorum longus - Musculus extensor digitorum longus
  • Extensor digitorum longus - Musculus extensor digitorum longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor hallucis brevis - Musculus extensor hallucis brevis
  • Extensor hallucis longus - Musculus extensor hallucis longus
  • Extensor hallucis longus - Musculus extensor hallucis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • External iliac artery - Arteria iliaca externa
  • External iliac vein - Vena iliaca externa
  • Femoral artery - Arteria femoralis
  • Femoral nerve - Nervus femoralis
  • Femoral vein - Vena femoralis
  • Fibula - Fibula
  • Fibular artery - Arteria fibularis
  • Fibular collateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale fibulare
  • Fibular veins; Peroneal veins - Venae fibulares; Venae peroneae
  • Fibularis brevis - Musculus fibularis brevis
  • Fibularis brevis - Musculus fibularis brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Fibularis longus - Musculus fibularis longus
  • Fibularis longus - Musculus fibularis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor digiti minimi brevis - Musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis
  • Flexor digitorum brevis - Musculus flexor digitorum brevis
  • Flexor digitorum longus - Musculus flexor digitorum longus
  • Flexor digitorum longus - Musculus flexor digitorum longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor hallucis brevis - Musculus flexor hallucis brevis
  • Flexor hallucis longus - Musculus flexor hallucis longus
  • Flexor hallucis longus - Musculus flexor hallucis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Foot - Pes
  • Gastrocnemius - Musculus gastrocnemius (Lateral head - Caput laterale)
  • Gastrocnemius - Musculus gastrocnemius (Medial head - Caput mediale)
  • Gerdy's tubercle - Gerdy's tubercle
  • Gluteal region - Regio glutealis
  • Gluteus maximus - Musculus gluteus maximus
  • Gluteus medius - Musculus gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus - Musculus gluteus minimus
  • Gracilis - Musculus gracilis
  • Gracilis - Musculus gracilis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Great saphenous vein - Vena saphena magna
  • Greater trochanter - Trochanter major
  • Head - Caput femoris
  • Head - Caput tali (Talus - Talus)
  • Iliac crest - Crista iliaca
  • Iliacus - Musculus iliacus
  • Iliofemoral ligament - Ligamentum iliofemorale
  • Iliopsoas - Musculus iliopsoas
  • Inferior gluteal artery - Arteria glutea inferior
  • Inferior gluteal vein - Vena gluteae inferiore
  • Inferior pubic ramus - Ramus inferior ossis pubis
  • Inguinal ligament - Ligamentum inguinale; Arcus inguinalis
  • Intercondylar fossa - Fossa intercondylaris
  • Intermediate cuneiform; Middle cuneiform - Os cuneiforme intermedium
  • Internal iliac artery - Arteria iliaca interna
  • Internal iliac vein - Vena iliaca interna
  • Ischial spine - Spina ischiadica
  • Ischial tuberosity - Tuber ischiadicum
  • Knee - Genu
  • Lateral compartment of leg - Lateral compartment of leg
  • Lateral condyle - Condylus lateralis
  • Lateral cuneiform - Os cuneiforme laterale
  • Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh; Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus femoris lateralis
  • Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus dorsalis lateralis
  • Lateral epicondyle - Epicondylus lateralis
  • Lateral malleolus - Malleolus lateralis
  • Lateral plantar artery - Arteria plantaris lateralis
  • Lateral plantar nerve - Nervus plantaris lateralis
  • Lateral sural cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus surae lateralis
  • Lateral tubercle - Tuberculum laterale (Talus - Talus)
  • Leg - Crus
  • Lesser trochanter - Trochanter minor
  • Ligaments - Ligamenta
  • Medial compartment of thigh - Compartimentum femoris mediale
  • Medial condyle - Condylus medialis
  • Medial cuneiform - Os cuneiforme mediale
  • Medial epicondyle - Epicondylus medialis
  • Medial malleolus - Malleolus medialis
  • Medial plantar artery - Arteria plantaris medialis
  • Medial plantar nerve - Nervus plantaris medialis
  • Medial sural cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus surae medialis
  • Medial tubercle - Tuberculum mediale (Talus - Talus)
  • Metatarsals [I-V] - Ossa metatarsi [I-V]
  • Muscles - Musculi
  • Navicular - Os naviculare
  • Neck - Collum femoris
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • Obturator artery - Arteria obturatoria
  • Obturator externus - Musculus obturatorius externus
  • Obturator internus - Musculus obturatorius internus
  • Obturator nerve - Nervus obturatorius
  • Obturator vein - Vena obturatoriae
  • Patella - Patella
  • Patellar ligament - Ligamentum patellae
  • Pectineus - Musculus pectineus
  • Piriformis - Musculus piriformis
  • Plantar interossei - Musculi interossei plantares
  • Plantaris - Musculus plantaris
  • Plantaris - Musculus plantaris (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Popliteal artery - Arteria poplitea
  • Popliteal vein - Vena poplitea
  • Popliteus - Musculus popliteus
  • Popliteus - Musculus popliteus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Posterior branch - Ramus posterior
  • Posterior compartment of leg - Compartimentum cruris posterius
  • Posterior compartment of thigh - Compartimentum femoris posterius
  • Posterior cruciate ligament - Ligamentum cruciatum posterius
  • Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh; Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus femoris posterior
  • Posterior inferior iliac spine - Spina iliaca posterior inferior
  • Posterior superior iliac spine - Spina iliaca posterior superior
  • Posterior talofibular ligament - Ligamentum talofibulare posterius
  • Posterior tibial artery - Arteria tibialis posterior
  • Posterior tibial veins - Venae tibiales posteriores
  • Posterior tibiofibular ligament - Ligamentum tibiofibulare posterius
  • Posterior tibiotalar part - Pars tibiotalaris posterior (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Profunda femoris vein; Deep vein of thigh - Vena profunda femoris
  • Proximal phalanx - Phalanx proximalis
  • Psoas major - Musculus psoas major
  • Pubic tubercle - Tuberculum pubicum
  • Quadratus femoris - Musculus quadratus femoris
  • Quadratus plantae; Flexor accessorius - Musculus quadratus plantae; Musculus flexor accessorius
  • Quadriceps femori - Musculus quadriceps femoris (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Rectus femoris - Musculus rectus femoris
  • Regions - Regions
  • Sacrotuberous ligament - Ligamentum sacrotuberale
  • Sacrum [sacral vertebrae I - V] - Os sacrum [vertebrae sacrales I - V]
  • Saphenous nerve - Nervus saphenus
  • Sartorius - Musculus sartorius
  • Sartorius - Musculus sartorius (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Sciatic nerve - Nervus ischiadicus
  • Semimembranosus - Musculus semimembranosus
  • Semimembranosus - Musculus semimembranosus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Semitendinosus - Musculus semitendinosus
  • Semitendinosus - Musculus semitendinosus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Sesamoid bones - Ossa sesamoidea
  • Shaft of femur; Body of femur - Corpus femoris
  • Small saphenous vein; Short saphenous vein - Vena saphena parva
  • Soleus - Musculus soleus
  • Superficial fibular nerve; Superficial peroneal nerve - Nervus fibularis superficialis; Nervus peroneus superficialis
  • Superior pubic ramus - Ramus superior ossis pubis
  • Sural nerve - Nervus suralis
  • Tensor of fascia lata - Musculus tensor fasciae latae
  • Thigh - Femur
  • Tibia - Tibia
  • Tibial collateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale tibiale
  • Tibial nerve - Nervus tibialis
  • Tibial tuberosity - Tuberositas tibiae
  • Tibialis anterior - Musculus tibialis anterior
  • Tibialis anterior - Musculus tibialis anterior (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Tibialis posterior - Musculus tibialis posterior
  • Tibialis posterior - Musculus tibialis posterior (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Tibiocalcaneal part - Pars tibiocalcanea (Medial ligament; Deltoid ligament - Ligamentum collaterale mediale; Ligamentum deltoideum)
  • Vastus intermedius - Musculus vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis - Musculus vastus lateralis
  • Vastus medialis - Musculus vastus medialis
  • Veins - Vena

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