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Anatomy of the shoulder (MRI, radiography images, medical illustrations and anatomical structures)

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Monday 22 September 2008

SECTION: Musculoskeletal anatomy (upper and lower extremities)

Images and anatomical references

Atlas of human antomy - The shoulder (MRI, X-rays, Angiogram medical illustrations) : loading page

 

This atlas of cross sectional anatomy of the glenohumeral joint (shoulder) is based on imagery by magnetic resonance (MRI). Each anatomical structure is labelled interactively. This tool is at the same time useful for the training and teaching of the anatomy, but also for experts to illustrate a course or an explanation of pathology to a patient, in particular within the framework of rotator cuff tendon injuries and joint disease.

This software is open and free for anyone curious about anatomy, but it was particularly conceived for radiologists, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, general practitioners, medical students (assistance with the preparation of medical boards), as well as radiologic technologists.

 

Human anatomical atlas of the shoulder : axial slice of T1 weighted MRI with all anatomical structures labeled (muscles, nerves, veins, arteries, bones, ligaments, lymph nodes).

 

Cross-sectional anatomy: MR of the shoulder

 

MRI of the shoulder : muscles of the rotator cuff labeled on a sagittal MR slice.

 

An MRI of the shoulder of a healthy subject was performed in the 3 planes of space (coronal, axial, sagittal) commonly used in osteoarticular imagery, with two weightings most commonly used to explore the musculo-skeletal pathology of the shoulder: spin-echo T1 and proton-density with fat saturation sequences.

The images obtained were exported to JPEG from DICOM data stored on the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System).

The images were post processed with Adobe Photoshop (realignment, reduction of size in order to adapt to the electronic format).

The interactive and dynamic contents were added with Adobe Flash.

 

3D model of the gleno-humeral joint : anatomy of the scapula, humerus and clavicle

 

Illustrations

 

Anatomy of the gleno-humeral joint - Medical illustration showing deep layer of muscles, ligaments and tendos all labeled.

 

We used a 3D volume rendering (CT-scan) of the shoulder. A numeric illustration was then added to show bone anatomy, muscles attachments, ligaments and muscle layers of the rotator cuff.
These illustrations allow basic anatomical recalls in anatomy of the shoulder and make it possible to be located more easily on an MRI by using the cross-references.

 

Arteriography (angiogram) of the axillary artery and his branches all labeled : subclavian, thoracic, subscapular, thoracodorsal, brachial, circumflex arteries...

 

X-rays

In this anatomic tool, we added a new kind of images :

 

  • Radiography of the shoulder (AP and “Y” view)

 

Medical pictures of the rotator cuff and gleno-humeral joint adapted from Netter's Illustrations

 

  • Arteriography (angiography) of the right axillary artery.

Medical illustration of the shoulder's muscles : superficial layer with deltoid, trapezius, pectoralis major and minor, latissiums dorsi...

Anatomy of the shoulder: how to use anatomic labels

 

Muscle attachments on a 3D medical illustration of the shoulder.

 

The menu “anatomical structures” allows the user to visualize only the chosen types of labels :

  • Bones
  •  Joints
  •  Ligaments
  •  Muscles
  •  Tendons
  •  Lymph nodes
  •  Arteries
  •  Veins
  •  Nerves

The “weightings” menu makes it possible to choose the type of MR sequence to be viewed: spin-echo T1 or proton-density with fat saturation sequences.
The “plans” menu allows the user to choose the visualization of the shoulder in one of the 3 planes of space: axial, coronal or sagittal and to access the illustrations and x-rays.
The left side menu provides cross-references to help for a better orientation in space for the user. This one moreover is facilitated by the medical illustrations.
We have added a new horizontal menu at the bottom, which allows the user to access the MR slices or other images (anatomic pictures and x-rays) more quickly.

 

Radiological anatomy of the shoulder based on X-rays (Radiography) - Bones and joints are all labeled interactively.


Anatomical parts

  • Acromial angle - Angulus acromii
  • Acromioclavicular joint - Articulatio acromioclavicularis
  • Acromioclavicular ligament - Ligamentum acromioclaviculare
  • Acromion - Acromion
  • Anatomical neck - Collum anatomicum
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior circumflex humeral artery - Arteria circumflexa humeri anterior
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Axillary artery - Arteria axillaris
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares (Apical nodes - Nodi apicales)
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares (Central nodes - Nodi centrales)
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares (Humeral nodes; Lateral nodes - Nodi humerales; Nodi laterales)
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares (Pectoral nodes; Anterior nodes - Nodi pectorales; Nodi anteriores)
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares (Subscapular nodes; Posterior nodes - Nodi subscapulares; Nodi posteriores)
  • Axillary nerve - Nervus axillaris
  • Axillary vein - Vena axillaris
  • Basilic vein - Vena basilica
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii - Long head - Caput longum
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii - Long head - Caput longum (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii - Short head - Caput breve
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii - Short head - Caput breve (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Bones; Skeletal system - Ossa; Systema skeletale
  • Brachial artery - Arteria brachialis
  • Brachial nodes - Nodi brachiales
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis
  • Brachial veins - Vena Brachiale
  • Brachialis - Musculus brachialis
  • Cephalic vein - Vena cephalica
  • Circumflex scapular artery - Arteria circumflexa scapulae
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Conoid ligament - Ligamentum conoideum
  • Coracoacromial ligament - Ligamentum coracoacromiale
  • Coracobrachialis - Musculus coracobrachialis
  • Coracobrachialis - Musculus coracobrachialis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Coracohumeral ligament - Ligamentum coracohumerale
  • Coracoid process - Processus coracoideus
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Bones - Os)
  • Cranial base - Basis cranii (Foramina - Foramina)
  • Crest of greater tubercle; Lateral lip - Crista tuberculi majoris; Labium laterale
  • Crest of lesser tubercle; Medial lip - Crista tuberculi minoris; Labium mediale
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus (Acromial part - Pars acromialis)
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus (Clavicular part - Pars clavicularis)
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus (Spinal part - Pars spinalis)
  • Deltopectoral nodes; Infraclavicular nodes - Nodi deltopectorales; Nodi infraclaviculares
  • Diagrams - Diagrams
  • Dorsal scapular artery - Arteria dorsalis scapulae
  • Glenohumeral joint; Shoulder joint - Articulatio humeri; Articulatio glenohumeralis
  • Glenohumeral ligaments - Ligamenta glenohumeralia (Inferior - Inferior)
  • Glenohumeral ligaments - Ligamenta glenohumeralia (Middle - Medius)
  • Glenohumeral ligaments - Ligamenta glenohumeralia (Superior - Superior)
  • Glenoid cavity - Cavitas glenoidalis
  • Glenoid labrum - Labrum glenoidale
  • Greater tubercle - Tuberculum majus
  • Head - Caput humeri
  • Hide - Hide
  • Humerus - Humerus
  • Inferior angle - Angulus inferior
  • Infraglenoid tubercle - Tuberculum infraglenoidale
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Infraspinous fossa - Fossa infraspinata
  • Interpectoral nodes - Nodi interpectorales
  • Intertubercular sulcus; Bicipital groove - Sulcus intertubercularis
  • Joint - Junctura
  • Lateral border - Margo lateralis
  • Lateral pectoral nerve - Nervus pectoralis lateralis
  • Lateral thoracic artery - Arteria thoracica lateralis
  • Latissimus dorsi - Musculus latissimus dorsi
  • Lesser tubercle - Tuberculum minus
  • Levator scapulae - Musculus levator scapulae
  • Ligaments - Ligamenta
  • Long thoracic nerve - Nervus thoracicus longus
  • Lymph node - Nodus lymphoideus; Nodus lymphaticus; Lymphonodus
  • Medial border - Margo medialis
  • Medial pectoral nerve - Nervus pectoralis medialis
  • Muscles; Muscular system - Musculi; Systema musculare
  • Musculocutaneous nerve - Nervus musculocutaneus
  • Neck of scapula - Collum scapulae
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • PD-SPIR - PD-SPIR
  • Paramammary nodes - Nodi paramammarii
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor
  • Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Posterior circumflex humeral artery - Arteria circumflexa humeri posterior
  • Profunda brachii artery; Deep artery of arm - Arteria profunda brachii
  • Rhomboid major - Musculus rhomboideus major
  • Rhomboid minor - Musculus rhomboideus minor
  • Scapula - Scapula
  • Serratus anterior - Musculus serratus anterior
  • Spine of scapula - Spina scapulae
  • Subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Subclavius - Musculus subclavius
  • Subdeltoid bursa - Bursa subdeltoidea + Subacromial bursa - Bursa subacromialis
  • Subscapular artery - Arteria subscapularis
  • Subscapular fossa - Fossa subscapularis
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Subtendinous bursa of subscapularis - Bursa subtendinea musculi subscapularis
  • Superior angle - Angulus superior
  • Superior border - Margo superior
  • Superior lateral brachial cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus brachii lateralis superior
  • Superior thoracic artery - Arteria thoracica superior
  • Superior transverse scapular ligament - Ligamentum transversum scapulae superius
  • Supraclavicular nodes - Nodi supraclaviculares
  • Supraglenoid tubercle - Tuberculum supraglenoidale
  • Suprascapular artery - Arteria suprascapularis
  • Suprascapular nerve - Nervus suprascapularis
  • Suprascapular notch - Incisura scapulae
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Supraspinous fossa - Fossa supraspinata
  • Surgical neck - Collum chirurgicum
  • T1 - T1
  • Tendon - Tendo
  • Teres major - Musculus teres major
  • Teres major - Musculus teres major (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Teres minor - Musculus teres minor
  • Teres minor - Musculus teres minor (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Thoracoacromial artery - Arteria thoracoacromialis
  • Thoracoacromial artery - Arteria thoracoacromialis (Acromial branch - Ramus acromialis)
  • Thoracoacromial artery - Arteria thoracoacromialis (Clavicular branch - Ramus clavicularis)
  • Thoracoacromial artery - Arteria thoracoacromialis (Deltoid branch - Ramus deltoideus)
  • Thoracoacromial artery - Arteria thoracoacromialis (Pectoral branches - Rami pectorales)
  • Thoracodorsal artery - Arteria thoracodorsalis
  • Thoracodorsal nerve - Nervus thoracodorsalis
  • Transverse humeral ligament - Ligamentum transversum humeri
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Trapezoid ligament - Ligamentum trapezoideum
  • Triceps brachii - Musculus triceps brachii - Lateral head - Caput laterale
  • Triceps brachii - Musculus triceps brachii - Long head - Caput longum
  • Triceps brachii - Musculus triceps brachii - Medial head - Caput mediale
  • Ulnar nerve - Nervus ulnaris - Median nerve - Nervus medianus - Radial nerve - Nervus radialis - Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm - Nervus cutaneus antebrachii medialis - Medial cutaneous nerve of arm - Nervus cutaneus brachii medialis
  • Veins - Vena
  • Weightings - Weightings

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