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MRI of the upper extremity anatomy - atlas of the human body using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Musculoskeletal anatomy (upper and lower extremities)

Images and anatomical references

We have created an anatomical atlas of the upper limb which is an interactive tool for studying the conventional anatomy of the shoulder, arm, forearm, wrist and hand based on an axial magnetic resonance of the entire upper limb. Anatomical structures and particular regions are visible as dynamic labelled images.

 

Atlas of human anatomy : cross-sectional anatomy of the upper limb - Shoulder, arm, bend, forearm, wrist, hand and fingers.

 

Cross sectional anatomy: MRI of the upper limb

An MRI was performed on a healthy subject with a spin-echo T1 weighted acquisition.
Data and DICOM images (archived on a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System)) were processed and exported as JPEG images. Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with suitable functionality and user interface for exploration of the skeleton anatomy.
Anatomical structures are labelled using the actual Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Anatomy of the upper limb : axial slice of the shouler and axillary fossa.

 

Anatomy of the arm, forearm, wrist, shoulder and hand: how to visualize anatomic labels

This module is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons and radiologists.
It provides access to an atlas and to images in the axial planes, allowing the user to learn and review orthopaedic anatomy interactively. Images are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. The test mode allows comprehensive evaluation of user progress.

The horizontal menu gives access to groups of anatomical structures that can be chosen by the user:

  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Muscles
  • Tendons
  • Bones
  • Nerves
  • Ligaments

 

Cross sectional anatomy of the upper limb : arm wtih muscles (brachioradialis, brachialis, biceps brachii, triceps brachii), brachial artery, humerus, nerves (ulnar, radial, musulocutaneous nerve)

 

As the cursor is moved over a particular compartment of the arm or forearm, that compartment is highlighted and labelled: anterior, lateral or posterior compartment.

The vertical left menu provides a medical illustration of an upper limb skeleton based on a three dimensional (3D) model that simplifies the access to the anatomical regions.

 

Human anatomy of the bend : bones (capitulum, trochlea, medial and lateral epicondyle, olecranon), common extensor and flexor tendon, nerves (radial, median , ulnar), cephalic and basilic veins...

 

Anatomy of the forearm with cross-sectional anatomical structures labeled as muscles (pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, brachioradilas, flexor capri ulnaris, supinator) and ulnara and radial arteries.

 

Wrist : cross-sectional anatomy based on axial slices showing tendos, nerves (ulnar, radial and median), arteries (ulnar and radial), bones (radius, ulna) and veins (cephalic, basilic, deep veins)

 

Anatomy of the hand : axial slice of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) wtith anatomical structures labeled.


Anatomical parts

  • Abductor digiti minimi - Musculus abductor digiti minimi
  • Abductor pollicis brevis - Musculus abductor pollicis brevis
  • Abductor pollicis longus - Musculus abductor pollicis longus
  • Abductor pollicis longus - Musculus abductor pollicis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Acromion - Acromion
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anconeus - Musculus anconeus
  • Anterior compartment of arm; Flexor compartment of arm - Compartimentum brachii anterius; Compartimentum brachii flexorum
  • Anterior interosseous artery - Arteria interossea anterior
  • Anterior interosseous nerve - Nervus interosseus antebrachii anterior
  • Anular ligament of radius - Ligamentum anulare radii
  • Arm - Brachium
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Axillary artery - Arteria axillaris
  • Axillary nerve - Nervus axillaris
  • Axillary vein - Vena axillaris
  • Basilic vein - Vena basilica
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Bones - Os
  • Brachial artery - Arteria brachialis
  • Brachial plexus - Plexus brachialis
  • Brachial veins - Vena Brachiale
  • Brachialis - Musculus brachialis
  • Brachioradialis - Musculus brachioradialis
  • Brachioradialis - Musculus brachioradialis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Capitate - Os capitatum
  • Capitulum - Capitulum humeri
  • Cephalic vein - Vena cephalica
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Common extensor tendon - Common extensor tendon
  • Common flexor tendon - Common flexor tendon
  • Common palmar digital arteries - Arteriae digitales palmares communes
  • Condyle of humerus - Condylus humeri
  • Coracobrachialis - Musculus coracobrachialis
  • Coracoid process - Processus coracoideus
  • Coronoid process - Processus coronoideus
  • Deep branch - Ramus profundus
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus
  • Deltoid tuberosity - Tuberositas deltoidea
  • Distal phalanx - Phalanx distalis
  • Dorsal digital arteries - Arteriae digitales dorsales
  • Dorsal digital nerves - Nervi digitales dorsales
  • Dorsal digital vein - Dorsal digital vein
  • Dorsal interossei - Musculi interossei dorsales
  • Dorsal metacarpal veins - Vena metacarpales dorsales
  • Dorsal tubercle - Tuberculum dorsale
  • Dorsal venous network of hand - Rete venosum dorsale manus
  • Elbow - Cubitus
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Musculus extensor carpi radialis brevis
  • Extensor carpi radialis brevis - Musculus extensor carpi radialis brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor carpi radialis longus - Musculus extensor carpi radialis longus
  • Extensor carpi radialis longus - Musculus extensor carpi radialis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris - Musculus extensor carpi ulnaris
  • Extensor carpi ulnaris - Musculus extensor carpi ulnaris (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor digiti minimi - Musculus extensor digiti minimi
  • Extensor digiti minimi - Musculus extensor digiti minimi (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor digitorum - Musculus extensor digitorum
  • Extensor digitorum - Musculus extensor digitorum (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor indicis - Musculus extensor indicis
  • Extensor indicis - Musculus extensor indicis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor pollicis brevis - Musculus extensor pollicis brevis
  • Extensor pollicis brevis - Musculus extensor pollicis brevis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Extensor pollicis longus - Musculus extensor pollicis longus
  • Extensor pollicis longus - Musculus extensor pollicis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor carpi radialis - Musculus flexor carpi radialis
  • Flexor carpi radialis - Musculus flexor carpi radialis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor carpi ulnaris - Musculus flexor carpi ulnaris
  • Flexor carpi ulnaris - Musculus flexor carpi ulnaris (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor digiti minimi brevis - Musculus flexor digiti minimi brevis
  • Flexor digitorum profundus - Musculus flexor digitorum profundus
  • Flexor digitorum profundus - Musculus flexor digitorum profundus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor digitorum superficialis - Musculus flexor digitorum superficialis
  • Flexor digitorum superficialis - Musculus flexor digitorum superficialis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Flexor pollicis brevis - Musculus flexor pollicis brevis
  • Flexor pollicis longus - Musculus flexor pollicis longus
  • Flexor pollicis longus - Musculus flexor pollicis longus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Forearm - Antebrachium
  • Glenoid cavity - Cavitas glenoidalis
  • Greater tubercle - Tuberculum majus
  • Hamate - Os hamatum
  • Hand - Manus
  • Head - Caput humeri
  • Head - Caput radii
  • Hook of hamate - Hamulus ossis hamati
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Intercapitular veins - Vena Intercapitulare
  • Interosseous membrane - Membrana interossea
  • Intertubercular sulcus; Bicipital groove - Sulcus intertubercularis
  • Lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm - Nervus cutaneus antebrachii lateralis
  • Lateral epicondyle - Epicondylus lateralis
  • Lateral head - Caput laterale
  • Lateral intermuscular septum of arm - Septum intermusculare brachii laterale
  • Lateral part; Radial part - Pars lateralis; Pars radialis
  • Lateral supraepicondylar ridge - Crista supraepicondylaris lateralis
  • Latissimus dorsi - Musculus latissimus dorsi
  • Lesser tubercle - Tuberculum minus
  • Ligaments - Ligamenta
  • Long head - Caput longum
  • Long head - Caput longum (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Lumbricals - Musculi lumbricales
  • Lunate - Os lunatum
  • Medial cutaneous nerve of arm - Nervus cutaneus brachii medialis
  • Medial cutaneous nerve of forearm - Nervus cutaneus antebrachii medialis
  • Medial epicondyle - Epicondylus medialis
  • Medial head - Caput mediale
  • Medial intermuscular septum of arm - Septum intermusculare brachii mediale
  • Medial supraepicondylar ridge - Crista supraepicondylaris medialis
  • Median antebrachial vein - Vena mediana antebrachii
  • Median cubital vein - Vena mediana cubiti
  • Median nerve - Nervus medianus
  • Metacarpals [I -V] - Ossa metacarpi [I -V]
  • Middle phalanx - Phalanx media
  • Muscles - Musculi
  • Musculocutaneous nerve - Nervus musculocutaneus
  • Neck - Collum radii
  • Neck of scapula - Collum scapulae
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • Olecranon - Olecranon
  • Olecranon fossa - Fossa olecrani
  • Opponens digiti minimi - Musculus opponens digiti minimi
  • Palmar digital veins - Vena digitales palmare
  • Palmar interossei - Musculi interossei palmares
  • Pectoral girdle; Shoulder girdle - Cingulum pectorale; Cingulum membri superioris
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor
  • Pisiform - Os pisiforme
  • Posterior compartment of arm; Extensor compartment of arm - Compartimentum brachii posterius; Compartimentum brachii extensorum
  • Posterior cutaneous nerve of arm; Posterior brachial cutaneous nerve - Nervus cutaneus brachii posterior
  • Posterior interosseous artery - Arteria interossea posterior
  • Posterior interosseous nerve - Nervus interosseus antebrachii posterior
  • Pronator quadratus - Musculus pronator quadratus
  • Pronator teres - Musculus pronator teres
  • Proper palmar digital arteries - Arteriae digitales palmares propriae
  • Proper palmar digital nerves - Nervi digitales palmares proprii
  • Proximal phalanx - Phalanx proximalis
  • Radial artery - Arteria radialis
  • Radial collateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale radiale
  • Radial nerve - Nervus radialis
  • Radial notch - Incisura radialis
  • Radial styloid process - Processus styloideus radii
  • Radial tuberosity - Tuberositas radii
  • Radial veins - Vena radiale
  • Radius - Radius
  • Regions - Regions
  • Scaphoid - Os scaphoideum
  • Scapula - Scapula
  • Shaft of humerus; Body of humerus - Corpus humeri
  • Short head - Caput breve
  • Spine of scapula - Spina scapulae
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Superficial branch - Ramus superficialis
  • Supinator - Musculus supinator
  • Suprascapular nerve - Nervus suprascapularis
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Tendon - Tendo
  • Teres major - Musculus teres major
  • Teres minor - Musculus teres minor
  • Trapezium - Os trapezium
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Trapezoid - Os trapezoideum
  • Triceps brachii - Musculus triceps brachii (Tendon - Tendo)
  • Triquetrum - Os triquetrum
  • Trochlea - Trochlea humeri
  • Tuberosity of ulna - Tuberositas ulnae
  • Ulna - Ulna
  • Ulnar artery - Arteria ulnaris
  • Ulnar collateral ligament - Ligamentum collaterale ulnare
  • Ulnar nerve - Nervus ulnaris
  • Ulnar notch - Incisura ulnaris
  • Ulnar styloid process - Processus styloideus ulnae
  • Ulnar veins - Vena Ulnare
  • Veins - Vena
  • Wrist - Carpus

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