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Anatomy of the chest and the lungs : anatomical illustrations

Antoine Micheau, Denis Hoa

Published on Thursday 05 August 2010

SECTION: Anatomy of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Images and anatomical references

This e-Anatomy module presents an illustrated anatomy of the lungs, trachea, bronchi, pleural cavity and pulmonary vessels.
This thoracic and pulmonary anatomy tool is especially designed for students of anatomy (medical and paramedical studies).

 

Anatomical illustrations of the lungs

 

All the anatomical illustrations are original and produced by Dr. Antoine Micheau. They were drawn in Illustrator using 3D modelling derived from medical imaging (principally thoracic scan).
The anatomical drawings are organised in a fairly classical manner so as to be easily usable as a standard anatomical atlas. The user navigates between different groups of images using the "Illustrations" tab:

  • General Anatomy: diagrams showing the general organisation of the thorax with the pleural cavity and mediastinum

 

 

Anatomy of the lungs

Anatomy of the lungs

 

 

  •  Histology: histological diagrams of the trachea, oesophagus, a segmental bronchus, a bronchiole and the alveolar wall.

 

 

Segmental bronchus : Histology

Segmental bronchus : Histology

 

 

  •  The bronchial tree details the trachea in anterior and posterior views as well as the bronchial tree and its various subdivisions (segmental bronchus, intrasegmental bronchi, terminal bronchiole, respiratory bronchiole, lobule and acinus).

 

 

Trachea - Bronchi - Bronchial tree

Trachea - Bronchi - Bronchial tree

 

 

  • Lobule: anatomical diagram showing the architecture of a pulmonary lobe (alveolar sac, alveolus, bronchiole, smooth muscle...)

 

 

Lobule - Medical illustrations : Terminal bronchiole Pulmonary alveolus Alveolar sac Alveolar duct

Lobule - Medical illustrations

 

 

  • Lungs - illustrations: anatomical drawings of the gross anatomy of the lungs in various views (anterior, posterior, lateral and medial).

 

 

Lungs - Gross anatomy : Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - Imaios

Lungs - Gross anatomy : Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - Imaios

 

 

  • Lungs – 3D: 3D images of the lungs from the thoracic scan data in different impacts

 

 

Right lung - 3D pictures : Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure of right lung

Right lung - 3D pictures

 

 

  • Lungs-lobes: diagrams detailing the various lung lobes (lower lobe, middle-right lobe, left lingula) separated by the pulmonary fissures.

 

 

Hilum of lung - Root of lung - Superior lobe; Upper lobe - Lingula of left lung - Middle lobe of right lung - Inferior lobe; Lower lobe

Hilum of lung - Root of lung - Superior lobe; Upper lobe - Lingula of left lung - Middle lobe of right lung - Inferior lobe; Lower lobe

 

 

  •  Lungs – bronchopulmonary segments: specifies the anatomy of the various lung segments, using the international nomenclature.

 

 

Bronchopulmonary segments : Apical segment [S I] Posterior segment [S II] Anterior segment [S III] Lateral segment [S IV] Medial segment [S V] Superior segment [S VI] Superior segment (Fowler) [S VI] Medial basal segment [S VII] Medial basal segment [S VII] Medial basal segment [S VII] Anterior basal segment [S VIII] Lateral basal segment [S IX] Posterior basal segment [S X]

Bronchopulmonary segments

 

 

  • Lobar and segmental bronchi: represents the nomenclature of lobar and segmental bronchi roots.
  • Pleural cavity: diagrams illustrating the anatomy of the parietal pleural cavity with different recess (costomediastinal and costodiaphragmatic recesses, pulmonary ligaments...)

 

 

Pleural cavity : Pleura Visceral pleura; Pulmonary pleura Serosa; Serous coat Subserosa; Subserous layer Parietal pleura Pleural cupula Costal part Diaphragmatic part Mediastinal part Serosa; Serous coat Subserosa; Subserous layer Pleural recesses Costodiaphragmatic recess Costomediastinal recess Phrenicomediastinal recess Vertebromediastinal recess Pulmonary ligament

Pleural cavity

 

 

  •  Pulmonary arteries: diagrams and 3D reconstructions of the pulmonary arterial tree

 

 

Pulmonary arteries : Pulmonary trunk, Right pulmonary artery, Left pulmonary artery ,Ligamentum arteriosum [Ductus arteriosus].

Pulmonary arteries

 

 

  •  Pulmonary veins: presents the anatomy of the 4 pulmonary veins and their venous afferences

 

 

Pulmonary veins : Right superior pulmonary vein, Right inferior pulmonary vein, Left superior pulmonary vein, Left inferior pulmonary vein.

Pulmonary veins

 

  • Intrapulmonary blood vessels – 3D: 3D images from a thoracic angioscanner allowing a visualisation of the relationship between the bronchi, pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins in the lungs.
  • Bronchial arteries: diagram of the emergence of the bronchial arteries in the descending thoracic aorta.
  • Bronchial veins: venous circulation of the bronchia into the azygos and hemiazygos veins.
  • IASLC - Ganglionic areas: diagram of ganglionic areas numbered 1 to 14, used in clinical practice in thoracic oncology for lung cancer disease spread assessment.

 

Captions of the anatomical structures of the respiratory system

 

125 pulmonary anatomical structures have been labelled. The legends are grouped into subcategories, displayable or maskable as required via the "anatomical structures" tab:

  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Alveolus
  • Lungs
  • Bronchopulmonary segments
  • Pleura
  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary veins
  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Thoracic lymph nodes
  • Bones; Skeletal system
  • Other structures

 

Language and terminology for the study of the anatomy of the thorax

 

We have used the Terminologia Anatomica to caption for all the anatomical structures, with translations into English, French, Japanese, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Spanish.


Anatomical parts

  • 10L - Left hilar nodes - 10L
  • 10R - Right hilar nodes - 10R
  • 11L - Left interlobar nodes - 11L
  • 11R - Right interlobar nodes - 11R
  • 12L - Left lobar nodes - 12L
  • 12R - Right lobar nodes - 12R
  • 13L - Left segmental nodes - 13L
  • 13R - Right segmental nodes - 13R
  • 14L - Left subsegmental nodes - 14L
  • 14R - Right subsegmental nodes - 14R
  • 1L - Left highest mediastinal nodes - 1L
  • 1R - Right highest mediastinal nodes - 1R
  • 2L - Left upper paratracheal nodes - 2L
  • 2R - Right upper paratracheal nodes - 2R
  • 3A - Prevascular nodes - 3A
  • 3B - Retrotracheal nodes - 3B
  • 4L - Left lower paratracheal nodes - 4L
  • 4R - Right lower paratracheal nodes - 4R
  • 5 - Subaortic (aortic–pulmonary window) - 5
  • 6 - Paraaortic nodes - 6
  • 7 - Subcarinal nodes - 7
  • 8 - Paraeosphageal nodes - 8
  • 9 - Lymph nodes of pulmonar ligaments - 9
  • Accessory hemiazygos vein; Superior hemiazygos vein - Vena hemiazygos accessoria
  • Acinus - Acinus
  • Adventitia - Tunica adventitia
  • Alveolar duct - Alveolar duct
  • Alveolar macrophage - Alveolar macrophage
  • Alveolar sac - Alveolar sac
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior basal segment [S VIII] - Segmentum basale anterius [S VIII]
  • Anterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis anterior
  • Anterior basal segmental bronchus [B VIII] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis anterior [B VIII]
  • Anterior basal vein - Vena basalis anterior
  • Anterior basal vein; Anterior basal branch - Vena basalis anterior; Ramus basalis anterior
  • Anterior border - Margo anterior
  • Anterior segment [S III] - Segmentum anterius [S III]
  • Anterior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis anterior
  • Anterior segmental bronchus [B III] - Bronchus segmentalis anterior [B III]
  • Anterior vein; Anterior branch - Vena anterior; Ramus anterior
  • Anterior view - Anterior
  • Anterior view - Anterior view
  • Antero-lateral view - Antero-lateral view
  • Anular ligaments - Ligg. anularia; Ligg. trachealia
  • Aortic arch - Arcus aortae
  • Apex of lung - Apex pulmonis
  • Apical segment [S I] - Segmentum apicale [S I]
  • Apical segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis apicalis
  • Apical segmental bronchus[B I] - Bronchus segmentalis apicalis[B I]
  • Apical vein; Apical branch - Vena apicalis; Ramus apicalis
  • Apicoposterior segment [S I+II] - Segmentum apicoposterius [S I+II]
  • Apicoposterior segmental bronchus [B I + II] - Bronchus segmentalis apicoposterior [B I + II]
  • Apicoposterior vein - Vena apicoposterior; Ramus apicoposterior
  • Arch of azygos vein - Arcus venae azygos
  • Area for esophagus - Area oesophageale
  • Area for thymus and fatty tissue of anterior mediastinum - Thymus - Mediastinum anterius
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Ascending branch - Ramus ascendens
  • Axial - Axialis
  • Azygos vein - Vena azygos
  • Basal part - Pars basalis
  • Base of lung - Basis pulmonis
  • Bifurcation of pulmonary trunk - Bifurcatio trunci pulmonalis
  • Bones; Skeletal system - Ossa; Systema skeletale
  • Brachiocephalic trunk - Truncus brachiocephalicus
  • Bronchi - Bronchi
  • Bronchial artery - Arteria bronchialis
  • Bronchial branches - Rami bronchiales
  • Bronchial glands - Glandulae bronchiales
  • Bronchial tree - Arbor bronchialis
  • Bronchial veins - Venae bronchiales
  • Bronchiole - Bronchiolus
  • Bronchioles - Bronchioli
  • Bronchopulmonary nodes - Nodi bronchopulmonales
  • Bronchopulmonary segments - Segmenta bronchopulmonalia
  • Capillary - Vas capillare
  • Cardiac impression - Impressio cardiaca
  • Cardiac notch of left lung - Incisura cardiaca pulmonis sinistri
  • Carina of trachea - Carina tracheae
  • Cartilage - Cartilago
  • Central tendon - Centrum tendineum
  • Cervical part - Pars cervicalis; Pars colli
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Common basal vein - Vena basalis communis
  • Coronal - Coronalis
  • Costal part - Pars costalis
  • Costal surface - Facies costalis
  • Costodiaphragmatic recess - Recessus costodiaphragmaticus
  • Costomediastinal recess - Recessus costomediastinalis
  • Cricoid cartilage - Cartilago cricoidea
  • Cricotracheal ligament - Ligamentum cricotracheale
  • Descending aorta - Pars descendens aortae; Aorta descendens
  • Descending branch - Ramus descendens
  • Diaphragm - Diaphragma
  • Diaphragmatic fascia - Fascia diaphragmatica
  • Diaphragmatic part - Pars diaphragmatica
  • Diaphragmatic surface - Facies diaphragmatica
  • Elastic fibers - Elastic fibers
  • Endothelial cell - Endothelial cell
  • Endothoracic fascia; Parietal fascia of thorax - Fascia endothoracica; Fascia parietalis thoracis
  • Erythrocyte - Erythrocyte
  • Fibromusculocartilaginous layer - Tunica fibromusculocartilaginea
  • Fibrous pericardium - Pericardium fibrosum
  • First rib [I] - Costa prima [I]
  • General Anatomy - Anatomia generalis
  • Groove for 1st rib - Sulcus costae primae
  • Groove for aortic arch - Sulcus arcus aortae
  • Groove for azygos vein - Sulcus venae azygos
  • Groove for brachiocephalic vein - Sulcus venae brachiocephalicae
  • Groove for descending aorta - Pars descendens aortae; Aorta descendens
  • Groove for esophagus - Sulcus oesophageus
  • Groove for inferior vena cava - Sulcus venae cavae inferioris
  • Groove for subclavian vein - Sulcus venae subclaviae
  • Groove for superior vena cava - Sulcus venae cavae superioris
  • Heart - Cor
  • Hemiazygos vein; Inferior hemiazygos vein - Vena hemiazygos
  • Hilum of lung - Hilum pulmonis
  • Histology - Histologia
  • Horizontal fissure of right lung - Fissura horizontalis pulmonis dextri
  • IASLC - Lymph node stations - IASLC - Nodus lymphoideus
  • Illustrations - Illustrations
  • Illustrations - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - Illustrations - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD
  • Inferior basal vein - Vena basalis inferior
  • Inferior lingular artery - Arteria lingularis inferior
  • Inferior lingular bronchus [B V] - Bronchus lingularis inferior[B V]
  • Inferior lingular segment [S V] - Segmentum lingulare inferius [S V]
  • Inferior lobar arteries - Arteriae lobares inferiores
  • Inferior lobe; Lower lobe - Lobus inferior
  • Inferior part of lingular vein - Pars inferior
  • Inferior thoracic aperture; Thoracic outlet - Apertura thoracis inferior
  • Inferior tracheobronchial nodes - Nodi tracheobronchiales inferiores
  • Inferior vena cava - Vena cava inferior
  • Infralobar part - Pars infralobaris
  • Interalveolar septum - Interalveolar septum
  • Intermediate bronchus - Bronchus intermedius
  • Intersegmental part - Pars intersegmentalis
  • Intralobar part - Pars intralobaris [intersegmentaire]
  • Intrapulmonary blood vessels - Vasa sanguinea intrapulmonalia
  • Intrapulmonary blood vessels - Vasa sanguinea intrapulmonalia - 3D pictures - 3D pictures
  • Intrasegmental bronchi - Bronchi intrasegmentales
  • Intrasegmental part - Pars intrasegmentalis
  • Large Intrasegmental bronchi - Bronchi intrasegmentales majores
  • Lateral basal segment [S IX] - Segmentum basale laterale [S IX]
  • Lateral basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis lateralis
  • Lateral basal segmental bronchus [B IX] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis lateralis [B IX]
  • Lateral part - Pars lateralis
  • Lateral segment [S IV] - Segmentum laterale [S IV]
  • Lateral segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis lateralis
  • Lateral segmental bronchus [B IV] - Bronchus segmentalis lateralis [B IV]
  • Lateral view - Lateralis
  • Left brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Left common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Left inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior sinister
  • Left inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra inferior
  • Left internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Left lung - Pulmo sinister
  • Left lung, inferior lobe - Pulmo sinister, lobus inferior
  • Left lung, superior lobe - Pulmo sinister, lobus superior
  • Left main bronchus - Bronchus principalis sinister
  • Left pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis sinistra
  • Left subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Left subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Left superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior sinister
  • Left superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra superior
  • Ligamentum arteriosum [Ductus arteriosus] - Ligamentum arteriosum [Ductus arteriosus]
  • Lingula of left lung - Lingula pulmonis sinistri
  • Lingular artery - Arteria lingularis
  • Lingular vein; Lingular branch - Vena lingularis; Ramus lingularis
  • Lobar and segmental bronchi - Bronchi lobares et segmentales
  • Lobes - Lobi
  • Lobule - Lobulus
  • Lungs - Pulmones
  • Lungs - Pulmones - 3D pictures - 3D pictures
  • Lungs - Pulmones - Bronchopulmonary segments - Segmenta bronchopulmonalia
  • Lungs - Pulmones - Illustrations - Illustrations
  • Lungs - Pulmones - Lobes - Lobi
  • Lymphatic vessel - Vas lymphaticum
  • Margo inferior - Inferior border
  • Medial basal segment [S VII] - Segmentum basale mediale [S VII]
  • Medial basal segment [S VII] - Segmentum basale mediale; Segmentum cardiacum [S VII]
  • Medial basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis medialis
  • Medial basal segmental bronchus B VII - Bronchus segmentalis basalis medialis; Bronchus cardiacus B VII
  • Medial basal segmental bronchus [B VIII] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis medialis; Bronchus cardiacus [B VIII]
  • Medial part - Pars medialis
  • Medial segment [S V] - Segmentum mediale [S V]
  • Medial segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis medialis
  • Medial segmental bronchus[B V] - Bronchus segmentalis medialis [B V]
  • Medial view - Medialis
  • Median cricothyroid ligament - Ligamentum cricothyroideum medianum
  • Mediastinal part - Pars mediastinalis
  • Mediastinal surface - Facies mediastinalis
  • Mediastinum - Mediastinum
  • Membranous wall - Paries membranaceus
  • Middle lobar artery - Arteria lobaris media
  • Middle lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris medius
  • Middle lobe of right lung - Lobus medius pulmonis dextri
  • Middle lobe vein; Middle lobe branch - Vena lobi medii; Ramus lobi medii
  • Mucosa; Mucous membrane - Tunica mucosa
  • Muscular layer; Muscular coat - Tunica muscularis
  • Muscularis mucosae - Lamina muscularis mucosae
  • Oblique fissure - Fissura obliqua
  • Oesophageal glands - Glandulae oesophageae
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Other structures - Other structures
  • Parietal layer - Lamina parietalis
  • Parietal pleura - Pleura parietalis
  • Pericardial cavity - Cavitas pericardiaca
  • Phrenicomediastinal recess - Recessus phrenicomediastinalis
  • Phrenicopleural fascia - Fascia phrenicopleuralis
  • Pleura - Pleura
  • Pleural cavity - Cavitas pleuralis
  • Pleural cupula - Cupula pleurae
  • Posterior basal segment [S X] - Segmentum basale posterius [S X]
  • Posterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis posterior
  • Posterior basal segmental bronchus [B X] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis posterior [B X]
  • Posterior intercostal veins - Venae intercostales posteriores
  • Posterior segment [S II] - Segmentum posterius [S II]
  • Posterior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis posterior
  • Posterior segmental bronchus [B II] - Bronchus segmentalis posterior [B II]
  • Posterior vein; Posterior branch - Vena posterior; Ramus posterior
  • Posterior view - Posterior
  • Pretracheal layer - Lamina pretrachealis
  • Pulmonary alveolus - Alveolus
  • Pulmonary arteries - Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary ligament - Ligamentum pulmonale
  • Pulmonary trunk - Truncus pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary veins - Venae pulmonales
  • Respiratory bronchioles - Bronchioli respiratorii
  • Ribs [I-XII] - Costae [I-XII]
  • Right brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Right inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior dexter
  • Right inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra inferior
  • Right internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Right lung - Pulmo dexter
  • Right lung, inferior lobe - Pulmo dexter, lobus inferior
  • Right lung, middle lobe - Pulmo dexter, lobus medius
  • Right lung, superior lobe - Pulmo dexter, lobus superior
  • Right main bronchus - Bronchus principalis dexter
  • Right pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis dextra
  • Right subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Right subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Right superior intercostal vein - Vena intercostalis superior dextra
  • Right superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior dexter
  • Right superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra superior
  • Rigth common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Root of lung - Radix pulmonis
  • Scapula - Scapula
  • Segmental bronchus - Bronchus segmentalis
  • Septal cell (fibroblast) - Septal cell (fibroblast)
  • Sinus of pulmonary trunk - Sinus trunci pulmonalis
  • Small Intrasegmental bronchi - Bronchi intrasegmentales minores
  • Smooth muscle - Smooth muscle
  • Sternum - Sternum
  • Submucosa - Tela submucosa
  • Superior basal vein - Vena basalis superior
  • Superior branch - Ramus superior
  • Superior lingular artery - Arteria lingularis superior
  • Superior lingular bronchus [B IV] - Bronchus lingularis superior [B IV]
  • Superior lingular segment [S IV] - Segmentum lingulare superius [S IV]
  • Superior lobar arteries - Arteriae lobares superiores
  • Superior lobe; Upper lobe - Lobus superior
  • Superior part of lingular vein - Pars superior
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior segmental artery (LIL) - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior segmental bronchus [B VI] - Bronchus segmentalis superior [B VI]
  • Superior thoracic aperture; Thoracic inlet - Apertura thoracis superior
  • Superior tracheobronchial nodes - Nodi tracheobronchiales superiores
  • Superior vein; Superior branch - Vena superior; Ramus superior
  • Superior vena cava - Vena cava superior
  • Suprapleural membrane - Membrana suprapleuralis
  • Surfactant - Surfactant
  • Terminal bronchiole - Bronchiolus terminalis
  • Thoracic lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei thoracis
  • Thoracic part - Pars thoracica
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Trachea - Trachea/Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Tracheal area - Trachea
  • Tracheal bifurcation - Bifurcatio tracheae
  • Tracheal cartilages - Cartilagines tracheales
  • Tracheal glands - Glandulae tracheales
  • Trachealis muscle - Musculus trachealis
  • Tracheobronchial nodes - Nodi tracheobronchiales
  • Type I pneumocyte - Type I pneumocyte
  • Type II pneumocyte - Type II pneumocyte
  • Vein - Vena
  • Veins - Venae
  • Vertebral column - Columna vertebralis
  • Vertebral part - Pars vertebralis
  • Vertebromediastinal recess - Recessus vertebromediastinalis
  • Visceral layer; Epicardium - Lamina visceralis; Epicardium
  • Visceral pleura; Pulmonary pleura - Pleura visceralis; Pleura pulmonalis

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