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Anatomy of the heart (coronary CT) - interactive atlas of the human body using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, Denis Hoa

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Images and anatomical references

Knowledge of coronary artery anatomy is important for the study and development of CT of the heart.
In this interactive atlas of the human heart anatomy, anatomical structures are visible on a contrast material–enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the heart and coronary arteries.
Actually, CT coronary angiography with three-dimensional volume-rendered and multiplanar images displays arterial anatomy similarly to conventional angiography and is becoming a major tool for the study of coronary artery disease (CAD)

 

Interactive anatomy atlas of the heart and coronary arteries based on MDCT : loading page

 

Cross sectional anatomy: Multi–Detector Row CT (MDCT) of the human heart

A cardiac contrast material–enhanced computed tomography (CT – 64 detectors) was performed on a healthy subject. In order to obtain nearly motion-free images, acquisition or reconstruction of data was performed during diastole (70%).
The images are reconstructed by using a medium soft-tissue kernel with retrospective ECG gating with 0.75-mm-thick sections. Images were reformatted to obtain the usual planes used in cardiac imaging (Ultrasound, MRI): axial, short axis, vertical long axis, horizontal long axis.
DICOM data archived on a PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were exported as JPEG images and then post-processed with Adobe Photoshop. Suitable functionality and user interface for the study of the cardiac anatomy has been developed with Adobe Flash software.
Anatomical structures were labelled according to the actual Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Anatomy of the heart : axial slice with chambers, myocardium, pericardium, left and right coronary arteries and other structures labeled.

 

Anatomy of the human heart and coronaries: how to visualize anatomic structures

This tool provides access to an MDCT atlas in the 4 usual planes, allowing the user to interactively discover heart anatomy. Images are labelled, providing an invaluable medical and anatomical tool. The test mode allows instant evaluation of user progress.

The superior horizontal menu bar provides the groups of anatomic labels that the user needs to use (“Anatomical Structures”):

  • Morphology – pericardium
  • Myocardium – fibrous structures
  • Left cavities
  • Right cavities
  • Valves: aortic, mitral tricuspid and pulmonary valves
  • Left coronary artery
  • Right coronary artery
  • Veins
  • Conduction system
  • ECG territories
  • Heart segmentation (Cerqueira et al. 2002 – AHA - AHC)
  • Mediastium vessels such as aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, superior vena cava.

 

 

The “planes” menu allows the user to choose one of the 4 usual planes used for cardiac imaging:

  • Axial
  • Horizontal long axis
  • Vertical long axis
  • Short axis

 

 

These planes may be chosen directly through the left vertical menu.

To the top of this vertical menu, medical illustrations based on a 3D model and a volume rendering of the heart and the four main coronary arteries (RCA, left main artery, LAD artery, and LCX artery) help the user to understand the Anatomy of the Heart and Great Vessels on MDCT.
As the cursor is moved over a particular anatomic area of the heart, the user is able to discover the links between myocardial vascular territories and electrocardiogram (ECG).

This module has been designed for radiologists, cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, medical students and residents.

 


Anatomical parts

  • 3D reconstructions - 3D reconstructions
  • All - All
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior (V2, V3) - Anterior (V2, V3)
  • Anterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis anterior
  • Anterior cusp - Cuspis anterior
  • Anterior interventricular branch - Ramus interventricularis anterior
  • Anterior interventricular branch(V1 - V6, D1, VL) - Ramus interventricularis anterior(V1 - V6, D1, VL)
  • Anterior interventricular sulcus - Sulcus interventricularis anterior
  • Anterior papillary muscle - Musculus papillaris anterior
  • Anterior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis anterior
  • Anterior semilunar cusp - Valvula semilunaris anterior
  • Anterior surface; Sternocostal surface - Facies sternocostalis; Facies anterior
  • Anterior vein; Anterior branch - Vena anterior; Ramus anterior
  • Antero-lateral (V5, V6, D1, VL) - Antero-lateral (V5, V6, D1, VL)
  • Anteroseptal (V1, V2, V3)
  • Aorta and its branches - Aorta and its branches
  • Aortic orifice - Ostium aortae
  • Aortic sinus - Sinus aortae
  • Aortic valve - Valva aortae
  • Aortic vestibule - Vestibulum aortae
  • Apex of heart - Apex cordis
  • Apical (V4) - Apical (V4)
  • Apical segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis apicalis
  • Apical vein; Apical branch - Vena apicalis; Ramus apicalis
  • Apicoposterior vein - Vena apicoposterior; Ramus apicoposterior
  • Arch of azygos vein - Arcus venae azygos
  • Ascending aorta - Pars ascendens aortae; Aorta ascendens
  • Atrial branches - Rami atriales
  • Atrioventricular branches - Rami atrioventriculares
  • Atrioventricular bundle - Fasciculus atrioventricularis
  • Atrioventricular nodal branch - Ramus nodi atrioventricularis
  • Atrioventricular node - Nodus atrioventricularis
  • Atrioventricular septum - Septum atrioventriculare
  • Azygos vein - Vena azygos
  • Basal (V7, V8, V9) - Basal (V7, V8, V9)
  • Base of heart - Basis cordis
  • Circumflex branch (D1, VL, D2, D3, VF, V5, V6, V7) - Ramus circumflexus (D1, VL, D2, D3, VF, V5, V6, V7)
  • Circumflex branch - Ramus circumflexus
  • Conduction system - Conduction system
  • Conus arteriosus; Infundibulum - Conus arteriosus
  • Coronary arteries - Coronary arteries
  • Coronary sinus - Sinus coronarius
  • Coronary sulcus - Sulcus coronarius
  • Crista terminalis - Crista terminalis
  • Descending aorta - Pars descendens aortae; Aorta descendens
  • Diaphragm - Diaphragma
  • Diaphragmatic surface; Inferior surface - Facies diaphragmatica; Facies inferior
  • ECG territories - ECG territories
  • Fossa ovalis; Oval fossa - Fossa ovalis
  • Great cardiac vein - Vena cardiaca magna; Vena cordis magna
  • Heart segmentation - Heart segmentation
  • Hide - Hide
  • Inferior (D2, D3, VF) - Inferior (D2, D3, VF)
  • Inferior basal vein - Vena basalis inferior
  • Inferior lobar arteries - Arteriae lobares inferiores
  • Inferior part of lingular vein - Pars inferior
  • Inferior vena cava - Vena cava inferior
  • Inferolateral (V5, V6, V7, D2, D3, VF) - Inferolateral (V5, V6, V7, D2, D3, VF)
  • Inferoseptal (V1, V2, V3, D2, D3, VF) - Inferoseptal (V1, V2, V3, D2, D3, VF)
  • Interatrial septum - Septum interatriale
  • Internal thoracic artery - Arteria thoracica interna
  • Intersegmental part - Pars intersegmentalis
  • Interventricular septal branches - Rami interventriculares septales
  • Intrasegmental part - Pars intrasegmentalis
  • LV and RV - LV and RV
  • LV and coronary arteries - LV and coronary arteries
  • Lateral (V5, V6)
  • Lateral basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis lateralis
  • Lateral branch - Ramus lateralis
  • Lateral part - Pars lateralis
  • Left Ventricule - Left Ventricule
  • Left atrioventricular orifice - Ostium atrioventriculare sinistrum
  • Left atrium - Atrium sinistrum
  • Left auricle - Auricula sinistra
  • Left bundle - Crus sinistrum
  • Left cavities - Left cavities
  • Left coronary artery - Arteria coronaria sinistra
  • Left coronary artery - Left coronary artery
  • Left fibrous trigone - Trigonum fibrosum sinistrum
  • Left inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra inferior
  • Left main bronchus - Bronchus principalis sinister
  • Left marginal artery - Ramus marginalis sinister
  • Left marginal vein - Vena marginalis sinistra
  • Left pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis sinistra
  • Left semilunar cusp - Valvula semilunaris sinistra
  • Left semilunar cusp ; Left coronary cusp - Valvula semilunaris sinistra; Valvula coronaria sinistra
  • Left superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra superior
  • Left ventricle - Ventriculus sinister
  • Lingular artery - Arteria lingularis
  • Liver - Hepar
  • Long axis - Long axis
  • Longitudinal - Longitudinalis
  • Medial basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis medialis
  • Medial part - Pars medialis
  • Mediastinal vessels - Mediastinal vessels
  • Membranous part - Pars membranacea
  • Middle cardiac vein; Posterior interventricular vein - Vena cardiaca media; Vena interventricularis posterior
  • Middle lobar artery - Arteria lobaris media
  • Mitral valve - Valva atrioventricularis sinistra; Valva mitralis
  • Morphology / Pericardium - Morphology / Pericardium
  • Muscular part - Pars muscularis
  • Musculophrenic artery - Arteria musculophrenica
  • Myocardium / Fibrous structures - Myocardium / Fibrous structures
  • Notch of cardiac apex - Incisura apicis cordis
  • Oblique pericardial sinus - Sinus obliquus pericardii
  • Oblique vein of left atrium - Vena obliqua atrii sinistri
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Opening of inferior vena cava - Ostium venae cavae inferioris
  • Opening of superior vena cava - Ostium venae cavae superioris
  • Other structures - Other structures
  • Pectinate muscles - Musculi pectinati
  • Pericardial cavity - Cavitas pericardiaca
  • Pericardium - Pericardium
  • Posterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis posterior
  • Posterior cusp - Cuspis posterior
  • Posterior interventricular sulcus - Sulcus interventricularis posterior
  • Posterior left ventricular branch - Ramus posterior ventriculi sinistri
  • Posterior papillary muscle - Musculus papillaris posterior
  • Posterior semilunar cusp ; Noncoronary cusp - Valvula semilunaris posterior ; Valvula non coronaria
  • Posterior vein of left ventricle - Vena ventriculi sinistri posterior
  • Posterior vein; Posterior branch - Vena posterior; Ramus posterior
  • Posteriorinterventricular branch - Ramus interventricularis posterior
  • Pulmonary arteries and branches - Pulmonary arteries and branches
  • Pulmonary trunk - Truncus pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary valve - Valva trunci pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary veins - Pulmonary veins
  • RV and coronary arteries - RV and coronary arteries
  • Right atrioventricular orifice - Ostium atrioventriculare dextrum
  • Right atrium - Atrium dextrum
  • Right auricle - Auricula dextra
  • Right border - Margo dexter
  • Right bundle - Crus dextrum
  • Right cavities - Right cavities
  • Right coronary artery (D2, D3, VF, V3R, V4R, V7, V8, V9) - Right coronary artery (D2, D3, VF, V3R, V4R, V7, V8, V9)
  • Right coronary artery - Arteria coronaria dextra
  • Right coronary artery - Right coronary artery
  • Right fibrous trigone - Trigonum fibrosum dextrum
  • Right inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra inferior
  • Right main bronchus - Bronchus principalis dexter
  • Right marginal branch - Ramus marginalis dexter
  • Right marginal vein - Vena marginalis dextra
  • Right postero-lateral branch - Ramus posterolateralis dexter
  • Right pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis dextra
  • Right semilunar cusp - Valvula semilunaris dextra
  • Right semilunar cusp ; Right coronary cusp - Valvula semilunaris dextra ; Valvula coronaria dextra
  • Right superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra superior
  • Right ventricle - Ventriculus dexter
  • Right/Left pulmonary surface - Facies pulmonalis dextrasinistra
  • Septal (V3) - Septal (V3)
  • Septal papillary muscle - Musculus papillaris septalis
  • Septomarginal trabecula; Moderator band - Trabecula septomarginalis
  • Short axis - Short axis
  • Show - Show
  • Sinuatrial node - Nodus sinuatrialis
  • Small cardiac vein - Venae cardiacae minimae; Venae cordis minimae
  • Sternum - Sternum
  • Subendocardial branches - Rami subendocardiales
  • Sulcus terminalis cordis - Sulcus terminalis cordis
  • Superior basal vein - Vena basalis superior
  • Superior branch - Ramus superior
  • Superior epigastric artery - Arteria epigastrica superior
  • Superior lobar arteries - Arteriae lobares superiores
  • Superior part of lingular vein - Pars superior
  • Superior segmental artery (LIL) - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior vein; Superior branch - Vena superior; Ramus superior
  • Superior vena cava - Vena cava superior
  • Supraventricular crest - Crista supraventricularis
  • Thoracic vertebrae (TI-TXII) - Vertebrae thoracicae (TI-TXII)
  • Thymus - Thymus
  • Trabeculae carneae - Trabeculae carneae
  • Tracheal bifurcation - Bifurcatio tracheae
  • Transverse pericardial sinus - Sinus transversus pericardii
  • Tricuspid valve - Valva atrioventricularis dextra; Valva tricuspidalis
  • Valve of coronary sinus - Valvula sinus coronarii
  • Valve of inferior vena cava (Eustachian valve) - Valvula venae cavae inferioris
  • Valves - Valves
  • Veins - Vena
  • Ventricule droit (V3R, V4R)
  • Ventricules and coronary arteries - Ventricules and coronary arteries

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