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Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Images and anatomical references

We have created an anatomical atlas of the chest and the mediastinum which is an interactive tool for studying the cross-sectional anatomy of the normal thorax based on an enhanced multidetector computed tomography with helical angiography of the thorax (axial plane). Anatomical structures are visible as interactive labelled images.

 

Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

 

Cross sectional anatomy: CT of the thorax

  • A CT was performed on a healthy subject, with an axial enhanced acquisition with different windows: parenchyma and mediastinum.
  • Data and DICOM images stocked on our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were processed and exported as JPEG images.
  • Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with suitable functionality and user interface for exploration of the thorax anatomy.
  • Anatomical structures were based on the Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Anatomy atlas - Cross-sectional anatomy : Thorax, Lungs, Mediastinum

Anatomy atlas - Cross-sectional anatomy : Thorax

 

Anatomy of the chest: how to visualize anatomic labels

 

This atlas is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for radiologists and pneumologists.
It provides access to CT images in the axial plane, allowing the user to learn and review the lung anatomy interactively. Anatomical structures are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. User progress may be evaluated with the test mode.
The horizontal menu allows access to several groups of anatomical structures:

 

Bronchopulmonary segments - Thorax (CT) : Superior lobe; Upper lobe Lingula of left lung Middle lobe of right lung Inferior lobe; Lower lobe Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure of right lung

Bronchopulmonary segments - Thorax (CT)

 

  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary veins
  • Segmental bronchi
  • Arteries of the mediastinum
  • Veins of the mediastinum
  • Muscles and layers of the thoracic cavity.
  • Bones of the thorax
  • Nerves

 

As the cursor is moved over an anatomic area of the lung parenchyma, the segment is highlighted and labelled: this tool has been chosen to show segmental lung anatomy (international and Ikeda).

The left vertical menu provides graphics of the bronchi, with anatomical schemas based on a three dimensional (3D) model (based on a volume rendering extracted from CT).

 

Bronchopulmonary segments - 3D pictures : Right lung, superior lobe Apical segment [S I] Posterior segment [S II] Anterior segment [S III] Right lung, middle lobe Lateral segment [S IV] Medial segment [S V] Right lung, inferior lobe Superior segment [S VI]

Bronchopulmonary segments - 3D pictures

 

Lungs : Medial basal segment [S VII]Anterior basal segment [S VIII] Lateral basal segment [S IX] Posterior basal segment [S X] Left lung, superior lobe Apicoposterior segment [S I+II] Anterior segment [S III] Superior lingular segment [S IV] Inferior lingular segment [S V]

Lungs

 

 

It also provides a graphic of the regional lymph nodes of the thorax.

 

 

Thoracic lymph nodes : Lateral pericardial nodes Paratracheal nodes Tracheobronchial nodes Superior tracheobronchial nodes Inferior tracheobronchial nodes Bronchopulmonary nodes Intrapulmonary nodes Juxtaoesophageal nodes

Thoracic lymph nodes

 

 

IASLC - Lymph node stations : Thoracic lymph nodes

IASLC - Lymph node stations : Thoracic lymph nodes


Anatomical parts

  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior basal segment [S VIII] - Segmentum basale anterius [S VIII]
  • Anterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis anterior
  • Anterior basal segmental bronchus [B VIII] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis anterior [B VIII]
  • Anterior basal vein - Vena basalis anterior
  • Anterior basal vein; Anterior basal branch - Vena basalis anterior; Ramus basalis anterior
  • Anterior segment [S III] - Segmentum anterius [S III]
  • Anterior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis anterior
  • Anterior segmental bronchus [B III] - Bronchus segmentalis anterior [B III]
  • Anterior vein; Anterior branch - Vena anterior; Ramus anterior
  • Anterobasal segmentary artery - Anterobasal segmentary artery segmental artery
  • Aortic arch - Arcus aortae
  • Apical segment [S I] - Segmentum apicale [S I]
  • Apical segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis apicalis
  • Apical segmental bronchus[B I] - Bronchus segmentalis apicalis[B I]
  • Apical vein; Apical branch - Vena apicalis; Ramus apicalis
  • Apicoposterior segment [S I+II] - Segmentum apicoposterius [S I+II]
  • Apicoposterior segmental bronchus [B I + II] - Bronchus segmentalis apicoposterior [B I + II]
  • Apicoposterior vein - Vena apicoposterior; Ramus apicoposterior
  • Arch of azygos vein - Arcus venae azygos
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Ascending aorta - Pars ascendens aortae; Aorta ascendens
  • Azygos vein - Vena azygos
  • B1+2A - B1+2A
  • B1+2B - B1+2B
  • B1+2C - B1+2C
  • B10A - B10A
  • B10B - B10B
  • B10C - B10C
  • B1A - B1A
  • B1B - B1B
  • B2A - B2A
  • B2B - B2B
  • B3A - B3A
  • B3B - B3B
  • B3C - B3C
  • B4A - B4A
  • B4B - B4B
  • B5A - B5A
  • B5B - B5B
  • B6A - B6A
  • B6B - B6B
  • B6C - B6C
  • B7A - B7A
  • B7B - B7B
  • B8A - B8A
  • B8B - B8B
  • B9A - B9A
  • B9B - B9B
  • Basal part - Pars basalis
  • Body of sternum - Corpus sterni
  • Bones - Os
  • Brachiocephalic trunk - Truncus brachiocephalicus
  • Brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Bronche segmentaire basale antérieure (B8)
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Common basal vein - Vena basalis communis
  • Common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Costal cartilage - Cartilago costalis
  • Descending aorta - Pars descendens aortae; Aorta descendens
  • Erector spinae - Musculus erector spinae
  • External intercostal muscle - Musculi intercostales externi
  • External oblique - Musculus obliquus externus abdominis
  • Horizontal fissure of right lung - Fissura horizontalis pulmonis dextri
  • Inferior basal vein - Vena basalis inferior
  • Inferior lingular artery - Arteria lingularis inferior
  • Inferior lingular bronchus [B V] - Bronchus lingularis inferior[B V]
  • Inferior lingular segment [S V] - Segmentum lingulare inferius [S V]
  • Inferior part of lingular vein - Pars inferior
  • Inferior thyroid vein - Vena thyroidea inferior
  • Inferior vena cava - Vena cava inferior
  • Infralobar part - Pars infralobaris
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus
  • Intermediate bronchus
  • Internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Internal thoracic artery - Arteria thoracica interna
  • Intersegmental part - Pars intersegmentalis
  • Intralobar part - Pars intralobaris [intersegmentaire]
  • Intrasegmental bronchi - Bronchi intrasegmentales
  • Intrasegmental part - Pars intrasegmentalis
  • Jugular notch; Suprasternal notch - Incisura jugularis
  • Lateral basal segment [S IX] - Segmentum basale laterale [S IX]
  • Lateral basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis lateralis
  • Lateral basal segmental bronchus [B IX] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis lateralis [B IX]
  • Lateral segment [S IV] - Segmentum laterale [S IV]
  • Lateral segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis lateralis
  • Lateral segmental bronchus [B IV] - Bronchus segmentalis lateralis [B IV]
  • Latissimus dorsi - Musculus latissimus dorsi
  • Left atrium - Atrium sinistrum
  • Left auricle - Auricula sinistra
  • Left coronary artery - Arteria coronaria sinistra
  • Left crus - Crus sinistrum
  • Left inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior sinister
  • Left inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra inferior
  • Left main bronchus - Bronchus principalis sinister
  • Left pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis sinistra
  • Left superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior sinister
  • Left superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra superior
  • Left ventricle - Ventriculus sinister
  • Lingular bronchus
  • Liver - Hepar
  • Lobar and segmental bronchi - Bronchi lobares et segmentales
  • Manubrium of sternum - Manubrium sterni
  • Medial basal segment [S VII] - Segmentum basale mediale [S VII]
  • Medial basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis medialis
  • Medial basal segmental bronchus B VII - Bronchus segmentalis basalis medialis; Bronchus cardiacus B VII
  • Medial basal segmental bronchus [B VIII] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis medialis; Bronchus cardiacus [B VIII]
  • Medial part - Pars medialis
  • Medial segment [S V] - Segmentum mediale [S V]
  • Medial segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis medialis
  • Medial segmental bronchus[B V] - Bronchus segmentalis medialis [B V]
  • Mediastinum - Mediastinum
  • Middle lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris medius
  • Muscles - Musculi
  • Nerves - Nerves
  • Oblique fissure - Fissura obliqua
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Other structures - Other structures
  • Parenchyma - Parenchyma
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major
  • Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor
  • Pericardium - Pericardium
  • Phrenic nerve - Nervus phrenicus
  • Posterior basal segment [S X] - Segmentum basale posterius [S X]
  • Posterior basal segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis basalis posterior
  • Posterior basal segmental bronchus [B X] - Bronchus segmentalis basalis posterior [B X]
  • Posterior intercostal arteries - Arteriae intercostales posteriores
  • Posterior segment [S II] - Segmentum posterius [S II]
  • Posterior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis posterior
  • Posterior segmental bronchus [B II] - Bronchus segmentalis posterior [B II]
  • Pulmonary arteries - Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary trunk - Truncus pulmonalis
  • Pulmonary veins - Pulmonary veins
  • Rectus abdominis - Musculus rectus abdominis
  • Recurrent laryngeal nerve - Nervus laryngeus recurrens
  • Rhomboid major - Musculus rhomboideus major
  • Ribs [I-XII] - Costae [I-XII]
  • Right atrium - Atrium dextrum
  • Right auricle - Auricula dextra
  • Right coronary artery - Arteria coronaria dextra
  • Right crus - Crus dextrum
  • Right inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior dexter
  • Right inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra inferior
  • Right main bronchus - Bronchus principalis dexter
  • Right pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis dextra
  • Right superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior dexter
  • Right superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra superior
  • Right ventricle - Ventriculus dexter
  • Scapula - Scapula
  • Serratus anterior - Musculus serratus anterior
  • Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis
  • Spleen - Splen; Lien
  • Sternocleidomastoid - Musculus sternocleidomastoideus
  • Stomach - Gaster
  • Subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis
  • Superior basal vein - Vena basalis superior
  • Superior branch - Ramus superior
  • Superior lingular artery - Arteria lingularis superior
  • Superior lingular bronchus [B IV] - Bronchus lingularis superior [B IV]
  • Superior lingular segment [S IV] - Segmentum lingulare superius [S IV]
  • Superior lobar arteries - Arteriae lobares superiores
  • Superior part of lingular vein - Pars superior
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior segmental artery (LIL) - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior segmental artery - Arteria segmentalis superior
  • Superior segmental bronchus [B VI] - Bronchus segmentalis superior [B VI]
  • Superior vein; Superior branch - Vena superior; Ramus superior
  • Superior vena cava - Vena cava superior
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus
  • Supreme intercostal vein - Vena intercostalis suprema
  • Sympathetic trunk - Truncus sympathicus
  • T1 - T1
  • T1 - T10 - T1 - T10
  • T1 - T11 - T1 - T11
  • T1 - T12 - T1 - T12
  • T2 - T2
  • T3 - T3
  • T4 - T4
  • T5 - T5
  • T6 - T6
  • T7 - T7
  • T8 - T8
  • T9 - T9
  • Teres major - Musculus teres major
  • Thymus - Thymus
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Vagus nerve [X] - Nervus vagus [X]
  • Veins - Vena
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Window - Window
  • Xiphoid process - Processus xiphoideus
 

Terminologia Anatomica / Ikeda / BTS

Jackson et Huber

Boyden

  Bronchus Artery Veins Broncho-pulmonar segments Bronchi
RSL B1 A1 V1 S1 Apical B1
  B2 A2 V2 S2 Posterior B3
  B3 A3 V3 S3 Anterior B2
LM B4 A4 V4 S4 lateral B4
  B5 A5 V5 S5 medial B5
RIL B6 A6 V6 S6 Superior B6
  B7 A7 V7 S7 Basal medial B7
  B8 A8 V8 S8 Basal anterior B8
  B9 A9 V9 S9 Basal latera B9
  B10 A10 V10 S10 Basal posterior B10
LSL culmen B1+2 A1+2 V1+2 S1+2 Apico-dorsal B1+3
  B3 A3 V3 S3 anterior B2
LSL lingula B4 A4 V4 S4 Superior B4
  B5 A5 V5 S5 Inferior B5
LIL B6 A6 V6 S6 Superior B6
  B7+8 A7+8 V7+8 S7+8 antero-medial B7+8
  B9 A9 V9 S9 Basal lateral B9
  B10 A10 V10 S10 Basal posterior B10

Anatomy of the lung and broncho-pulmonar segments : anterior and lateral view on 3D colored models

Segmental anatomy of the bronchus and broncho-pulmonar segments (Boyden, Jackson and Huber, BTS) : 3D pictures and illustrations

  • This atlas is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for radiologists and pneumologists.
  •  It provides access to CT images in the axial plane, allowing the user to learn and review the lung anatomy interactively.
  • Anatomical structures are labeled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. User progress may be evaluated with the test mode.
  •  The horizontal menu allows access to several groups of anatomical structures:
     Pulmonary arteries
  •  Pulmonray veins
  •  Segmental bronchi
  •  Arteries of the mediastinum
  •  Veins of the mediastinum
  •  Muscles and layers of the thoracic cavity
  •  Bones of the thorax
  •  Nerves
  • As the cursor is moved over an anatomic area of the lung parenchyma, this segment is highlighted and labeled: this tool has been chosen to show segmental lung anatomy (international and Ikeda).
  • The left vertical menu provides graphics of the bronchi, with anatomical schemas based on a three dimensional (3D) model (based on a volume rendering extracted from CT).
  •  It also provides a graphic of the regional lymph nodes of the thorax.

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