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PET-CT atlas of the whole body

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

Published on Friday 24 February 2012

SECTION: Anatomy of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Images and anatomical references

PET-CT images provided by G. Chuto - MD

 

This module is devoted to the anatomy of the human body as studied when performing a PET scan with FDG injection.
It contains 280 images in axial section, ranging from cranial base to the root of the thighs, with over 250 anatomical structures captioned, with 4 selectable image types (PET, scanner, or PET-CT)
It is particularly aimed at doctors and nuclear medical technicians, radiologists and oncologists, including the disease spread assessment of cancers.

 

PET-scanner images with FDG

 

The PET-CT images, which pertain to a healthy male subject, were provided by Dr. William Chuto. There are four types of images, typically composed of a positron emission tomography combined with a scanner:

  • PET-CT fusion: combining image scanner data and FDG tracer scintigraphy. These images are often very educational but are not used routinely.

 

 

PET-CT : anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis

PET-CT : anatomy of the neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis

 

 

  • CT (abdomen-mediastinum): whole body scanner images without injection with window function permitting the study of the soft tissues, including lymph node structures, mediastinum and abdomen.
  • CT (lung-bone): stronger window function, allowing a better visualisation of the pulmonary parenchyma and the lungs.
  • PET: tomographic images with attenuation factor correction, allowing the visualisation of areas fixing the tracer (e.g. heart, brain, urinary tract).

 

 

Positron emission tomography: Pelvis - Urinary bladder

Positron emission tomography: Pelvis - Urinary bladder

 

 

Anatomical structures captioned by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

 

250 anatomical structures of the neck and trunk have been captioned, using only the structures visible and studied through praxis on a PET scanner:

  • The general anatomy presents the principle regions of human body, useful in locating a tumoral process: axilla, quadrants of the abdomen ... etc.
  • The bone (skeletal system) presents the different bones of the neck, trunk and root of the lower limbs fairly approximately to avoid overloading the module.
  • The articular system presents the large joints of the human body, with particular focus on the spine.
  • The muscles (muscular system) have been exhaustively annotated, apart from the erector spinae muscles and certain muscles of the pelvic floor that are not identifiable on this scanner.

 

 

Positron emission Tomography - Computed tomography: IASLC - Lymph node stations

Positron emission Tomography - Computed tomography: IASLC - Lymph node stations

 

 

  • The respiratory system includes the main structures from the nasal cavity to the bronchi.
  • The bronchopulmonary segments have been identified by captioned areas with the help of the classification of the Terminologia Anatomica (numbers vary depending on the source areas, e.g. Boyden).

 

 

Positron emission tomography with Computed Tomography (PET-CT): Bronchopulmonary segments

Positron emission tomography with Computed Tomography (PET-CT): Bronchopulmonary segments

 

 

  • The thoracic cavity contains the large mediastinal regions and the cardiac structures.
  • The digestive system includes the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, large and small intestines, liver and pancreas. We have here included the spleen, which, however, is a lymphoid and not digestive organ.
  • The hepatic segmentation represents the 7 segments of the liver by means of zones and legends.

 

 

PET-CT fusion images: Hepatic segmentation - Peritoneal Cancer Index

PET-CT fusion images: Hepatic segmentation - Peritoneal Cancer Index

 

 

  • The abdominal cavity includes the different spaces (peritoneal, retroperitoneal, retropubic) and mesenteries (mesentery, mesocolon).
  • The Peritoneal Cancer Index is presented in the form of zones numbered 1 through 12 of the different possible locations of peritoneal carcinomatosis. A diagram of this index is available in the classifications tab. This index is still not officially recognised but is widely used in clinical practice.
  • The urinary system is comprised chiefly of the kidneys and bladder.
  • The male reproductive system was captioned so simply in order to be able to quickly locate structures such as the seminal vesicles or the prostate.
  • The endocrine glands include the thyroid, the thymus (illustrated despite its atrophying into adulthood) and the adrenal glands.
  • The arteries have been cursorily captioned, primarily as they form basic anatomical landmarks.
  • The veins include the upper and lower vena cava system as well as the portal system.
  • The lymph nodes tab describes the lymph nodes as described in the Terminologia Anatomica – names often not used in current practice.
  • The ganglionic areas pick up the classifications used in oncology and surgery (cervical and thoracic lymph nodes (IASLC)) in the form of differently coloured regions.
  • The nervous system is not easy to study on CT scan without injection.

 

The Details tab

 

This will allow all the structures to be displayed, or only those images having a low level of detail.

 

Language and anatomical terminology

 

We have used the Terminologia Anatomica to caption for all the anatomical structures, with translations into English, French, Japanese, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Spanish.


Anatomical parts

  • 'Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Superficial nodes; Anterior jugular nodes - Nodi superficiales; Nodi jugulares anteriores
  • 10L - Left hilar nodes - 10L
  • 10R - Right hilar nodes - 10R
  • 1L - Left highest mediastinal nodes - 1L
  • 1R - Right highest mediastinal nodes - 1R
  • 2L - Left upper paratracheal nodes - 2L
  • 2R - Right upper paratracheal nodes - 2R
  • 3A - Prevascular nodes - 3A
  • 3B - Retrotracheal nodes - 3B
  • 4L - Left lower paratracheal nodes - 4L
  • 4R - Right lower paratracheal nodes - 4R
  • 5 - Subaortic (aortic–pulmonary window) - 5
  • 6 - Paraaortic nodes - 6
  • 7 - Subcarinal nodes - 7
  • 8 - Paraeosphageal nodes - 8
  • 9L - Lymph nodes of left pulmonar ligament - 9L
  • 9R - Lymph nodes of right pulmonar ligament - 9R
  • Abdomen - Abdomen
  • Abdominal aorta - Aorta abdominalis
  • Abdominopelvic cavity - Cavitas abdominis et pelvis
  • Acetabulum - Acetabulum
  • Acromioclavicular joint - Articulatio acromioclavicularis
  • Adductor brevis - Musculus adductor brevis
  • Adductor longus - Musculus adductor longus
  • Adductor magnus - Musculus adductor magnus
  • Adductor minimus - Musculus adductor minimus
  • Alimentary system - Systema digestorium
  • Ampulla; Duodenal cap - Ampulla; Bulbus
  • Anal canal - Canalis analis
  • Anatomical structures - Anatomical parts
  • Anterior basal segment [S VIII] - Segmentum basale anterius [S VIII]
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Infrahyoid nodes - Nodi infrahyoidei
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Paratracheal nodes - Nodi paratracheales
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Prelaryngeal nodes - Nodi prelaryngei
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Pretracheal nodes - Nodi pretracheales
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Retropharyngeal nodes - Nodi retropharyngeales
  • Anterior cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales anteriores; Nodi colli anteriores: Deep nodes - Nodi profundi: Thyroid nodes - Nodi thyroidei
  • Anterior cervical region; Anterior triangle - Regio cervicalis anterior; Trigonum cervicale anterius; Trigonum colli anterius
  • Anterior lateral segment; Segment VI - Segmentum anterius laterale dextrum; Segmentum VI
  • Anterior medial segment; Segment V - Segmentum anterius mediale dextrum; Segmentum V
  • Anterior mediastinum - Mediastinum anterius
  • Anterior region of arm - Regio brachii anterior; Regio brachialis anterior
  • Anterior region of thigh - Regio femoris anterior
  • Anterior segment [S III] - Segmentum anterius [S III]
  • Anus - Anus
  • Aortic arch - Arcus aortae
  • Aortic bifurcation - Bifurcatio aortae
  • Apical segment [S I] - Segmentum apicale [S I]
  • Apicoposterior segment [S I+II] - Segmentum apicoposterius [S I+II]
  • Arch of azygos vein - Arcus venae azygos
  • Arteries - Arteriae
  • Aryepiglottic fold - Plica aryepiglottica
  • Arytenoid cartilage - Cartilago arytenoidea
  • Ascending aorta - Pars ascendens aortae; Aorta ascendens
  • Ascending colon - Colon ascendens
  • Atlantooccipital joint - Articulatio atlantooccipitalis
  • Atlas [C I] - Atlas [C I]
  • Auricular region - Regio auricularis
  • Axillary artery - Arteria axillaris
  • Axillary fossa - Fossa axillaris
  • Axillary lymph nodes - Nodi lymphoidei axillares
  • Axillary region - Regio axillaris
  • Axis [C II] - Axis [C II]
  • Azygos vein - Vena azygos
  • Biceps brachii - Musculus biceps brachii
  • Biceps femoris - Musculus biceps femoris
  • Body of pancreas - Corpus pancreatis
  • Body of penis - Corpus penis
  • Body of stomach - Corpus gastricum
  • Bones; Skeletal system - Ossa; Systema skeletale
  • Brachial nodes - Nodi brachiales
  • Brachiocephalic nodes - Nodi brachiocephalici
  • Brachiocephalic trunk - Truncus brachiocephalicus
  • Brain - Cerebrumstem - Truncus encephali
  • Bronchopulmonary nodes - Nodi bronchopulmonales
  • Bronchopulmonary segments - Segmenta bronchopulmonalia
  • Buccal region - Regio buccalis
  • Bulbospongiosus - Musculus bulbospongiosus
  • CT - CT (Lungs - Pulmones-Bones - Os)
  • CT - CT (Mediastinum - Mediastinum-Abdomen - Abdomen)
  • Caecum - Caecum
  • Cardia - Cardia
  • Carina of trachea - Carina tracheae
  • Caudate lobe - Lobus caudatus
  • Cerebellum - Cerebellum
  • Choanae - Choanae
  • Clavicle - Clavicula
  • Coccygeal foveola - Foveola coxígea
  • Coccyx - Coccyx
  • Coeliac nodes - Nodi coeliaci
  • Common hepatic artery - Arteria hepatica communis
  • Common iliac artery - Arteria iliaca communis
  • Common iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci communes
  • Common iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci communes: Promontorial nodes - Nodi promontorii
  • Common iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci communes: Subaortic nodes - Nodi subaortici
  • Common iliac vein - Vena iliaca communis
  • Coracobrachialis - Musculus coracobrachialis
  • Corpus cavernosum penis - Corpus cavernosum penis
  • Corpus spongiosum penis - Corpus spongiosum penis
  • Costochondral joints - Articulationes costochondrales
  • Costotransverse joint - Articulatio costotransversaria
  • Costovertebral joints - Articulationes costovertebrales
  • Cremaster male - Musculus cremaster male
  • Cricoid cartilage - Cartilago cricoidea
  • Deep artery of thigh - Arteria profunda femoris
  • Deep inguinal nodes - Nodi inguinales profundi
  • Deep parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei profundi
  • Deltoid - Musculus deltoideus
  • Deltoid region - Regio deltoidea
  • Deltopectoral nodes; Infraclavicular nodes - Nodi deltopectorales; Nodi infraclaviculares
  • Descending aorta - Pars descendens aortae; Aorta descendens
  • Descending colon - Colon descendens
  • Diaphragm - Diaphragma
  • Digastric - Musculus digastricus
  • Duodenojejunal flexure - Flexura duodenojejunalis
  • Duodenum - Duodenum: Ascending part - Pars ascendens
  • Duodenum - Duodenum: Descending part - Pars descendens
  • Duodenum - Duodenum: Inferior part; Horizontal part; Transverse part - Pars horizontalis; Pars inferior
  • Duodenum - Duodenum: Superior part - Pars superior
  • Endocrine glands - Glandulae endocrinae
  • Epididymis - Epididymis
  • Epigastric region ; Epigastric fossa - Epigastrium; Regio epigastrica; Fossa epigastrica
  • Epiglottic vallecula - Vallecula epiglottica
  • Epiglottis - Epiglottis
  • Erector spinae - Musculus erector spinae
  • Ethmoid; Ethmoidal bone - Os ethmoidale
  • Ethmoidal cells - Cellulae ethmoidales
  • External anal sphincter - Musculus sphincter ani externus
  • External iliac artery - Arteria iliaca externa
  • External iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci externi
  • External iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci externi: Interiliac nodes - Nodi interiliaci
  • External iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci externi: Obturator nodes - Nodi obturatorii
  • External iliac vein - Vena iliaca externa
  • External intercostal muscle - Musculi intercostales externi
  • External jugular vein - Vena jugularis externa
  • External oblique - Musculus obliquus externus abdominis
  • Extraperitoneal space - Spatium extraperitoneale
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales: Buccinator node - Nodus buccinatorius
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales: Malar node - Nodus malaris
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales: Mandibular node - Nodus mandibularis
  • Facial nodes - Nodi faciales: Nasolabial node - Nodus nasolabialis
  • Femoral artery - Arteria femoralis
  • Femoral triangle - Trigonum femoris
  • Femoral vein - Vena femoralis
  • Femur; Thigh bone - Femur; Os femoris
  • Flank; Lateral region - Latus; Regio lateralis
  • Frontal bone - Os frontale
  • Frontal sinus - Sinus frontalis
  • Fundus of stomach - Fundus gastricus
  • Gallbladder - Vesica biliaris
  • Gemellus inferior; Inferior gemellus - Musculus gemellus inferior
  • Gemellus superior; Superior gemellus - Musculus gemellus superior
  • General Anatomy - Anatomia generalis
  • Geniohyoid - Musculus geniohyoideus
  • Glans penis - Glans penis
  • Glenohumeral joint; Shoulder joint - Articulatio humeri; Articulatio glenohumeralis
  • Glottis - Glottis
  • Gluteal fold - Sulcus glutealis
  • Gluteal region - Regio glutealis
  • Gluteus maximus - Musculus gluteus maximus
  • Gluteus medius - Musculus gluteus medius
  • Gluteus minimus - Musculus gluteus minimus
  • Gracilis - Musculus gracilis
  • Great saphenous vein - Vena saphena magna
  • Greater curvature - Curvatura major
  • Greater omentum - Omentum majus
  • Greater sciatic foramen - Foramen - Foramen ischiadicum majus
  • Greater supraclavicular fossa - Fossa supraclavicularis major
  • Groin; Inguinal region - Inguen; Regio inguinalis
  • Hard palate - Palatum durum
  • Head - Caput
  • Head of pancreas - Caput pancreatis
  • Heart - Cor
  • Hepatic nodes - Nodi hepatici: Cystic node - Nodus cysticus
  • Hepatic nodes - Nodi hepatici: Node of anterior border of omental foramen - Nodus foraminalis
  • Hepatic portal vein - Vena portae hepatis
  • Hepatic segmentation - Segmentatio hepatis
  • Hilum of lung - Hilum pulmonis
  • Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone - Os coxae
  • Hip joint - Articulatio coxofemoralis
  • Hip region - Regio coxae
  • Horizontal fissure of right lung - Fissura horizontalis pulmonis dextri
  • Humerus - Humerus
  • Hyoid bone - Os hyoideum
  • Hypochondrium - Hypochondrium; Regio hypochondriaca
  • Ileal papilla - Papilla ilealis
  • Ileum - Ileum
  • Ileum - Ileum: Terminal part - Pars terminalis
  • Iliacus - Musculus iliacus
  • Iliopsoas - Musculus iliopsoas
  • Ilium - Os ilium; Ilium
  • Inferior diaphragmatic nodes - Nodi phrenici inferiores
  • Inferior epigastric nodes - Nodi epigastrici inferiores
  • Inferior lingular segment [S V] - Segmentum lingulare inferius [S V]
  • Inferior mesenteric artery - Arteria mesenterica inferior
  • Inferior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici inferiores
  • Inferior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici inferiores: Sigmoid nodes - Nodi sigmoidei
  • Inferior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici inferiores: Superior rectal nodes - Nodi rectales superiores
  • Inferior mesenteric vein - Vena mesenterica inferior
  • Inferior nasal concha - Concha nasi inferior
  • Inferior tracheobronchial nodes - Nodi tracheobronchiales inferiores
  • Inferior vena cava - Vena cava inferior
  • Infraclavicular fossa - Fossa infraclavicularis
  • Infraglottic cavity - Cavitas infraglottica
  • Inframammary region - Regio inframammaria
  • Infrascapular region - Regio infrascapularis
  • Infraspinatus - Musculus infraspinatus
  • Inguinal canal - Canalis inguinalis
  • Inguinal ligament - Ligamentum inguinale; Arcus inguinalis
  • Innermost intercostal muscle - Musculi intercostales intimi
  • Intercostal nodes - Nodi intercostales
  • Intergluteal cleft; Natal cleft - Crena analis; Crena ani; Crena interglutealis
  • Intermediate lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales intermedii
  • Internal iliac artery - Arteria iliaca interna
  • Internal iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci interni
  • Internal iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci interni: Gluteal nodes - Nodi gluteales
  • Internal iliac nodes - Nodi iliaci interni: Sacral nodes - Nodi sacrales
  • Internal iliac vein - Vena iliaca interna
  • Internal intercostal muscle - Musculi intercostales interni
  • Internal oblique - Musculus obliquus internus abdominis
  • Interpectoral nodes - Nodi interpectorales
  • Intrapulmonary nodes - Nodi intrapulmonales
  • Ischioanal fossa - Fossa ischioanalis
  • Ischiocavernosus - Musculus ischiocavernosus
  • Ischiococcygeus; Coccygeus - Musculus ischiococcygeus; Musculus coccygeus
  • Ischium - Os ischii; Ischium
  • Jejunum - Jejunum
  • Joints; Articular system - Juncturae; Systema articulare
  • Juxtaoesophageal nodes - Nodi juxtaoesophageales
  • Lacrimal bone - Os lacrimale
  • Laryngeal inlet - Aditus laryngis
  • Laryngeal vestibule - Vestibulum laryngis
  • Lateral atlantoaxial joint - Articulatio atlantoaxialis lateralis
  • Lateral basal segment [S IX] - Segmentum basale laterale [S IX]
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Inferior deep nodes - Nodi profundi inferiores: Anterior nodes - Nodi anteriores
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Inferior deep nodes - Nodi profundi inferiores: Juguloomohyoid node - Nodus juguloomohyoideus
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Inferior deep nodes - Nodi profundi inferiores: Lateral node - Nodus lateralis
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Superficial nodes - Nodi superficiales
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Superior deep nodes - Nodi profundi superiores: Anterior node - Nodus anterior
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Superior deep nodes - Nodi profundi superiores: Jugulodigastric nod - Nodus jugulodigastricus
  • Lateral cervical nodes - Nodi cervicales laterales; Nodi colli laterales: Superior deep nodes - Nodi profundi superiores: Lateral node - Nodus lateralis
  • Lateral cervical region; Posterior triangle - Regio cervicalis lateralis; Trigonum cervicale posterius; Trigonum colli laterale
  • Lateral inguinal fossa - Fossa inguinalis lateralis
  • Lateral pectoral region - Regio pectoralis lateralis
  • Lateral pericardial nodes - Nodi pericardiaci laterales
  • Lateral pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus lateralis
  • Lateral segment [S IV] - Segmentum laterale [S IV]
  • Lateral vesical nodes - Nodi vesicales laterales
  • Latissimus dorsi - Musculus latissimus dorsi
  • Left anterior lateral segment; Segment III - Segmentum anterius laterale sinistrum; Segmentum III
  • Left atrium - Atrium sinistrum
  • Left brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Left colic flexure - Flexura coli sinistra; Flexura coli splenica
  • Left common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Left gastroomental nodes - Nodi gastroomentales sinistri
  • Left inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior sinister
  • Left inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra inferior
  • Left internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Left kidney - Ren sinister; Nephros sinister
  • Left lobe of liver - Lobus hepatis sinister
  • Left lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales sinistri: Lateral aortic nodes - Nodi aortici laterales
  • Left lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales sinistri:Postaortic nodes - Nodi retroaortici; Nodi postaortici
  • Left lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales sinistri:Preaortic nodes - Nodi preaortici
  • Left lung, inferior lobe - Pulmo sinister, lobus inferior
  • Left lung, superior lobe - Pulmo sinister, lobus superior
  • Left main bronchus - Bronchus principalis sinister
  • Left medial segment; Segment IV - Segmentum mediale sinistrum; Segmentum IV
  • Left posterior lateral segment; Segment II - Segmentum posterius laterale sinistrum; Segmentum II
  • Left pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis sinistra
  • Left renal artery - Arteria renalis
  • Left renal vein - Vena renale
  • Left subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Left subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Left superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior sinister
  • Left superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis sinistra superior
  • Left suprarenal gland - Glandula suprarenalis
  • Left ureter - Ureter sinister
  • Left ventricle - Ventriculus sinister
  • Lesser curvature - Curvatura min o
  • Lesser omentum - Omentum minus
  • Lesser sciatic foramen - Foramen - Foramen ischiadicum minus
  • Levator ani - Musculus levator ani
  • Levator scapulae - Musculus levator scapulae
  • Level III - III
  • Level IIa - IIa
  • Level IIb - IIb
  • Level IV - IV
  • Level Ia - Ia
  • Level Ib - Ib
  • Level V - V
  • Level VI - VI
  • Linea alba - Linea alba
  • Lingual nodes - Nodi linguales
  • Lingual tonsil - Tonsilla lingualis
  • Lingula of left lung - Lingula pulmonis sinistri
  • Liver - Hepar
  • Longus capitis - Musculus longus capitis
  • Longus colli - Musculus longus colli; Musculus longus cervicis
  • Lumbar region - Regio lumbalis
  • Lumbosacral joint - Articulatio lumbosacralis
  • Lymph node - Nodus lymphoideus; Nodus lymphaticus; Lymphonodus
  • Lymph nodes regions - Lymph nodes regions
  • Male genital system - Systema genitale masculinum
  • Mammary region - Regio mammaria
  • Mandible - Mandibula
  • Manubriosternal joint - Symphysis manubriosternalis
  • Masseter - Musculus masseter
  • Mastoid nodes - Nodi mastoidei
  • Mastoid region - Regio mastoidea
  • Maxilla - Maxilla
  • Maxillary sinus - Sinus maxillaris
  • Medial basal segment [S VII] - Segmentum basale mediale [S VII]
  • Medial basal segment [S VII] - Segmentum basale mediale; Segmentum cardiacum [S VII]
  • Medial inguinal fossa - Fossa inguinalis medialis
  • Medial pterygoid - Musculus pterygoideus medialis
  • Medial segment [S V] - Segmentum mediale [S V]
  • Median atlantoaxial joint - Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana
  • Mental region - Regio mentalis
  • Mesentery - Mesenterium
  • Mesocolic nodes - Nodi mesocolici: Left colic nodes - Nodi colici sinistri
  • Mesocolic nodes - Nodi mesocolici: Paracolic nodes - Nodi paracolici
  • Mesocolic nodes - Nodi mesocolici: Right colic nodes - Nodi colici dextri
  • Middle lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris medius
  • Middle lobe of right lung - Lobus medius pulmonis dextri
  • Middle mediastinum - Mediastinum medium
  • Middle nasal concha - Concha nasi media
  • Muscles; Muscular system - Musculi; Systema musculare
  • Mylohyoid - Musculus mylohyoideus
  • Nasal bone - Os nasale
  • Nasal region - Regio nasalis
  • Nasal septum - Septum nasi
  • Nasopharynx - Pars nasalis pharyngis
  • Neck - Collum; Cervix
  • Neck of pancreas - Collum pancreatis
  • Nervous system - Systema nervosum
  • Node of arch of azygos vein; Lymph node of arch of azygos vein - Nodus lymphaticus arcus venae azygos
  • Node of ligamentum arteriosum; Lymph node of ligamentum arteriosum - Nodus lymphaticus ligamenti arteriosi
  • Nodes around cardia; Lymph nodes around cardia - Anulus lymphaticus cardiae
  • Oblique fissure - Fissura obliqua
  • Obliquus capitis inferior - Musculus obliquus capitis inferior
  • Obliquus capitis superior - Musculus obliquus capitis superior
  • Obturator canal - Canalis obturatorius
  • Obturator externus - Musculus obturatorius externus
  • Obturator internus - Musculus obturatorius internus
  • Occipital bone - Os occipitale
  • Occipital nodes - Nodi occipitales
  • Occipital region - Regio occipitalis
  • Oesophagus - Oesophagus
  • Omohyoid - Musculus omohyoideus
  • Oral Part of the Pharynx  - Pars oralis pharyngis
  • Oral region - Regio oralis
  • Orbital region - Regio orbitalis
  • PET - PET
  • PET-CT - CT - PET-CT - CT
  • PET-CT - CT fusion images - PET-CT - CT fusion images
  • Palatine bone - Os palatinum
  • Palatine tonsil - Tonsilla palatina
  • Pancreatic nodes - Nodi pancreatici
  • Pancreaticoduodenal nodes - Nodi pancreaticoduodenales
  • Paramammary nodes - Nodi paramammarii
  • Pararectal fossa - Fossa pararectalis
  • Pararectal nodes - Nodi pararectales; Nodi anorectales
  • Parasternal nodes - Nodi parasternales
  • Paratracheal nodes - Nodi paratracheales
  • Paravesical fossa - Fossa paravesicalis
  • Parotid gland - Glandula parotidea
  • Parotid region - Regio parotideomasseterica
  • Pectineus - Musculus pectineus
  • Pectoralis major - Musculus pectoralis major
  • Pectoralis minor - Musculus pectoralis minor
  • Pelvis - Pelvis
  • Pericardial cavity - Cavitas pericardiaca
  • Perineal region - Regio perinealis: Anal triangle - Regio analis
  • Perineal region - Regio perinealis: Urogenital triangle - Regio urogenitalis
  • Peritoneal Cancer Index - Peritoneal Cancer Index
  • Pharyngeal tonsil - Tonsilla pharyngea
  • Piriform fossa; Piriform recess - Recessus piriformis
  • Piriformis - Musculus piriformis
  • Pleura - Pleura
  • Posterior basal segment [S X] - Segmentum basale posterius [S X]
  • Posterior cervical region - Regio cervicalis posterior; Regio colli posterior
  • Posterior lateral segment; Segment VII - Segmentum posterius laterale dextrum; Segmentum VII
  • Posterior medial segment; Segment VIII - Segmentum posterius mediale dextrum; Segmentum VIII
  • Posterior mediastinum - Mediastinum posterius
  • Posterior region of arm - Regio brachii posterior; Regio brachialis posterior
  • Posterior region of thigh - Regio femoris posterior
  • Posterior segment [S II] - Segmentum posterius [S II]
  • Posterior segment; Caudate lobe; Segment I - Segmentum posterius; Lobus caudatus; Segmentum I
  • Postvesical nodes - Nodi retrovesicales; Nodi postvesicales
  • Prepericardial nodes - Nodi prepericardiaci
  • Presternal region - Regio presternali
  • Prevertebral nodes - Nodi prevertebrales
  • Prevesical nodes - Nodi prevesicales
  • Prostate - Prostata
  • Psoas major - Musculus psoas major
  • Pubic region - Hypogastrium; Regio pubica
  • Pubic symphysis - Symphysis pubica
  • Pubis - Os pubis; Pubis
  • Pudendal canal - Canalis pudendalis
  • Pulmonary trunk - Truncus pulmonalis
  • Pyloric antrum - Antrum pyloricum
  • Pyloric nodes - Nodi pylorici
  • Pylorus - Pylorus
  • Quadrate lobe - Lobus quadratus
  • Quadratus femoris - Musculus quadratus femoris
  • Quadratus lumborum - Musculus quadratus lumborum
  • Rectovesical pouch male - Excavatio rectovesicalis male
  • Rectum - Rectum
  • Rectus abdominis - Musculus rectus abdominis
  • Rectus capitis posterior major - Musculus rectus capitis posterior major
  • Rectus capitis posterior minor - Musculus rectus capitis posterior minor
  • Rectus femoris - Musculus rectus femoris
  • Regions - Regions
  • Respiratory system - Systema respiratorium
  • Retroinguinal space - Spatium retroinguinale
  • Retroperitoneal space - Spatium retroperitoneale
  • Retropubic space - Spatium retropubicum
  • Rhomboid major - Musculus rhomboideus major
  • Rhomboid minor - Musculus rhomboideus minor
  • Rib [III] - Costa [III]
  • Rib [II] - Costa [II]
  • Rib [IV] - Costa [IV]
  • Rib [IX] - Costa [IX]
  • Rib [I] - Costa [I]
  • Rib [VIII] - Costa [VIII]
  • Rib [VII] - Costa [VII]
  • Rib [VI] - Costa [VI]
  • Rib [V] - Costa [V]
  • Rib [XII] - Costa [XII]
  • Rib [XI] - Costa [XI]
  • Rib [X] - Costa [X]
  • Right atrium - Atrium dextrum
  • Right brachiocephalic vein - Vena brachiocephalica
  • Right colic flexure - Flexura coli dextra; Flexura coli hepatica
  • Right gastric nodes - Nodi gastrici dextri
  • Right gastroomental nodes - Nodi gastroomentales dextri
  • Right inferior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris inferior dexter
  • Right inferior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra inferior
  • Right internal jugular vein - Vena jugularis interna
  • Right kidney - Ren dexter; Nephros dexter
  • Right lobe of liver - Lobus hepatis dexter
  • Right lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales dextri: Lateral caval nodes - Nodi cavales laterales
  • Right lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales dextri:Postcaval nodes - Nodi retrocavales; Nodi postcavales
  • Right lumbar nodes - Nodi lumbales dextri:Precaval nodes - Nodi precavales
  • Right lung, inferior lobe - Pulmo dexter, lobus inferior
  • Right lung, superior lobe - Pulmo dexter, lobus superior
  • Right main bronchus - Bronchus principalis dexter
  • Right pulmonary artery - Arteria pulmonalis dextra
  • Right renal artery - Arteria renalis
  • Right renal vein - Vena renale
  • Right subclavian artery - Arteria subclavia
  • Right subclavian vein - Vena subclavia
  • Right superior lobar bronchus - Bronchus lobaris superior dexter
  • Right superior pulmonary vein - Vena pulmonalis dextra superior
  • Right suprarenal gland - Glandula suprarenalis
  • Right ureter - Ureter dexter
  • Right ventricle - Ventriculus dexter
  • Rigth common carotid artery - Arteria carotis communis
  • Rima glottidis - Rima glottidis; Rima vocalis
  • Root of penis - Radix penis
  • Round ligament of liver - Ligamentum teres hepatis
  • Sacral region - Regio sacralis
  • Sacrococcygeal joint - Articulatio sacrococcygea
  • Sacroiliac joint - Articulatio sacroiliaca
  • Sacrum [sacral vertebrae I - V] - Os sacrum [vertebrae sacrales I - V]
  • Sartorius - Musculus sartorius
  • Scalenus anterior; Anterior scalene - Musculus scalenus anterior
  • Scalenus medius; Middle scalene - Musculus scalenus medius
  • Scalenus posterior; Posterior scalene - Musculus scalenus posterior
  • Scapula - Scapula
  • Scapular region - Regio scapularis
  • Scrotum - Scrotum
  • Semimembranosus - Musculus semimembranosus
  • Seminal gland; Seminal vesicle - Glande vesiculosa; Glandula seminalis; Vesicula seminalis
  • Semitendinosus - Musculus semitendinosus
  • Serratus anterior - Musculus serratus anterior
  • Serratus posterior inferior - Musculus serratus posterior inferior
  • Serratus posterior superior - Musculus serratus posterior superior
  • Sigmoid colon - Colon sigmoideum
  • Sigmoid mesocolon - Mesocolon sigmoideum
  • Spermatic cord - Funiculus spermaticus
  • Sphenoid; Sphenoidal bone - Os sphenoidale
  • Sphenoidal sinus - Sinus sphenoidalis
  • Spinal cord - Medulla spinalis
  • Spinotransversales - Musculi spinotransversales
  • Spleen - Splen; Lien
  • Splenic artery - Arteria splenica; Arteria lienalis
  • Splenic nodes - Nodi splenici; Nodi lienales
  • Splenic vein - Vena splenica; Vena lienalis
  • Sternocleidomastoid - Musculus sternocleidomastoideus
  • Sternocleidomastoid region - Regio sternocleidomastoidea
  • Sternocostal joints - Articulationes sternocostales
  • Sternohyoid - Musculus sternohyoideus
  • Sternothyroid - Musculus sternothyroideus
  • Sternum - Sternum
  • Stylohyoid - Musculus stylohyoideus
  • Subclavius - Musculus subclavius
  • Sublingual gland - Glandula sublingualis
  • Submandibular gland - Glandula submandibularis
  • Submandibular nodes - Nodi submandibulares
  • Submental nodes - Nodi submentales
  • Subscapularis - Musculus subscapularis
  • Superficial inguinal nodes - Nodi inguinales superficiales
  • Superficial parotid nodes - Nodi parotidei superficiales
  • Superior diaphragmatic nodes - Nodi phrenici superiores
  • Superior lingular segment [S IV] - Segmentum lingulare superius [S IV]
  • Superior mediastinum - Mediastinum superius
  • Superior mesenteric artery - Arteria mesenterica superior
  • Superior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici superiores: Central superior mesenteric nodes - Nodi superiores centrales
  • Superior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici superiores: Ileocolic nodes - Nodi ileocolici
  • Superior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici superiores: Precaecal nodes - Nodi precaecales
  • Superior mesenteric nodes - Nodi mesenterici superiores: Retrocaecal nodes - Nodi retrocaecales
  • Superior mesenteric vein - Vena mesenterica superior
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior segment [S VI] - Segmentum superius [S VI]
  • Superior tracheobronchial nodes - Nodi tracheobronchiales superiores
  • Superior vena cava - Vena cava superior
  • Supraclavicular nodes - Nodi supraclaviculares
  • Supraspinatus - Musculus supraspinatus
  • Supravesical fossa - Fossa supravesicalis
  • Tail of pancreas - Cauda pancreatis
  • Temporal bone - Os temporale
  • Temporal lobe - Lobus temporalis
  • Temporal region - Regio temporalis
  • Temporalis; Temporal muscle - Musculus temporalis
  • Temporomandibular joint - Articulatio temporomandibularis
  • Tensor of fascia lata - Musculus tensor fasciae latae
  • Teres major - Musculus teres major
  • Teres minor - Musculus teres minor
  • Testis - Testis; Orchis
  • Thigh - Femur
  • Thoracic cavity; Thorax - Cavitas thoracis; Cavitas thoracica
  • Thorax - Thorax
  • Thymus - Thymus
  • Thyroid cartilage - Cartilago thyroidea
  • Thyroid gland - Glandula thyroidea
  • Tongue - Lingua
  • Trachea - Trachea
  • Tracheal bifurcation - Bifurcatio tracheae
  • Transverse colon - Colon transversum
  • Transverse mesocolon - Mesocolon transversum
  • Transversospinales - Musculi transversospinales
  • Transversus abdominis; Transverse abdominal - Musculus transversus abdominis
  • Trapezius - Musculus trapezius
  • Triceps brachii - Musculus triceps brachii
  • Umbilical region - Umbilicus; Regio umbilicalis
  • Umbilical ring - Anulus umbilicalis
  • Urinary bladder - Vesica urinaria
  • Urinary system - Systema urinarium
  • Uvula - Uvula palatina
  • Vastus intermedius - Musculus vastus intermedius
  • Vastus lateralis - Musculus vastus lateralis
  • Vastus medialis - Musculus vastus medialis
  • Veins - Venae
  • Vertebra CIII - Vertebra CIII
  • Vertebra CIV - Vertebra CIV
  • Vertebra CV - Vertebra CV
  • Vertebra CVI - Vertebra CVI
  • Vertebra CVII - Vertebra CVII
  • Vertebra LI - Vertebra LI
  • Vertebra LII - Vertebra LII
  • Vertebra LIII - Vertebra LIII
  • Vertebra LIV - Vertebra LIV
  • Vertebra LV - Vertebra LV
  • Vertebra TI - Vertebra TI
  • Vertebra TII - Vertebra TII
  • Vertebra TIII - Vertebra TIII
  • Vertebra TIV - Vertebra TIV
  • Vertebra TIX - Vertebra TIX
  • Vertebra TV - Vertebra TV
  • Vertebra TVI - Vertebra TVI
  • Vertebra TVII - Vertebra TVII
  • Vertebra TVIII - Vertebra TVIII
  • Vertebra TX - Vertebra TX
  • Vertebra TXI - Vertebra TXI
  • Vertebra TXII - Vertebra TXII
  • Vertebral artery - Arteria vertebralis
  • Vertebral region - Regio vertebralis
  • Vocal fold - Plica vocalis
  • Vomer - Vomer
  • Xiphisternal joint - Symphysis xiphosternalis
  • Zygapophysial joints - Articulationes zygapophysiales
  • Zygomatic bone - Os zygomaticum
  • Zygomatic region - Regio zygomatica
  • laryngeal part of the pharynx - Pars laryngea pharyngis
  • left gastric nodes - Nodi gastrici sinistri

Lymph node levels of the neck

Level

Name

Cranial

Caudal

Anterior

Posterior

Lateral

Medial

Ia Submental nodes Geniohyoid m. Platysma m. Platysma m. Symphysis menti; Body of hyoid bone Medial edge of anteriorbelly of digastric m. Midline
Ib Submandibular nodes Mylohyoid m., cranialedge of submandibulargland or caudal edge ofmedial pterygoid m. Platysma m. Symphysis menti Body of hyoid bone;posterior edge ofsubmandibular gland Basilar edge ofmandible; platysma m. Lateral edge of anterior belly of digastric m.
II Upper jugular nodes Bottom edge of the bodyof C1 Bottom edge of the bodyof hyoid bone Posterior edge ofsubmandibular gland;posterior edge ofposterior belly ofdigastric m. Posterior border ofsternocleidomastoid m. Medial edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Internal edge of internal carotid artery, paraspinal(levator scapulae) m.
III Middle jugular nodes Bottom edge of the bodyof hyoid bone Bottom edge of cricoidcartilage Posterolateral edge ofsternohyoid m. Posterior edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Medial edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. nternal edge of carotid artery, paraspinal(scalenius) m.
IV Lower jugular nodes Bottom edge of cricoidcartilage Cranial border ofclavicle Posterolateral edge ofsternohyoid m. Posterior edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Medial edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Internal edge of internal carotid artery, paraspinal(scalenius) m.
V Posterior cervical nodes Skull base Cranial border ofclavicle Posterior edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Anterior border oftrapezius m.; scalenius m. Platysma m.; skin Paraspinal (levatorscapulae, spleniuscapitis) m.
VI Anterior cervical nodes Bottom edge of the bodyof hyoid bone Sternal manubrium Skin; platysma m. Posterolateral edge of sternohyoid m. Medial edge of commoncarotid artery, skin andanterior±medial edge ofsternocleidomastoid m. Midline
  Retropharyngeal nodes Base of skull Cranial edge of the bodyof hyoid bone Levator veli palatini m. Prevertebral m. (longuscolli, longus capitis) Medial edge of internalcarotid artery Midline
Lymph nodes of head and neck

Lymph nodes of head and neck

 

 

Thoracic Lymph Node Map Definitions (Mountain and Dressler)

Nodal station

Name

Anatomic landmarks

1R- 1L Highest mediastinal nodes Nodes lying above a horizontal line at the upper rim of the bracheocephalic (left innominate) vein where it ascends to the left, crossing in front of the trachea at its midline
2R-2L Upper paratracheal nodes Nodes lying above a horizontal line drawn tangential to the upper margin of the aortic arch and below the inferior boundary of No. 1 nodes
3A-3B Prevascular and retrotracheal nodes Prevascular and retrotracheal nodes may be designated 3A and 3P; midline nodes are considered to be ipsilateral
4R-4L Lower paratracheal nodes

The lower paratracheal nodes on the right lie to the right of the midline of the trachea between a horizontal line drawn tangential to the upper margin of the aortic arch and a line extending across the right main bronchus at the upper margin of the upper lobe bronchus, and contained within the mediastinal pleural envelope; the lower paratracheal nodes on the left lie to the left of the midline of the trachea between a horizontal line drawn tangential to the upper margin of the aortic arch and a line extending across the left main bronchus at the level of the upper margin of the left upper lobe bronchus, medial to the ligamentum arteriosum and contained within the mediastinal pleural envelope

Researchers may wish to designate the lower paratracheal nodes as No. 4s (superior) and No. 4i (inferior) subsets for study purposes; the No. 4s nodes may be definedby a horizontal line extending across the trachea and drawn tangential to thecephalic border of the azygos vein; the No. 4i nodes may be defined by the lower boundary of No. 4s and the lower boundary of No. 4, as described above

5 Subaortic (aorto-pulmonary window) Subaortic nodes are lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum or the aorta or left pulmonary artery and proximal to the first branch of the left pulmonary artery and lie within the mediastinal pleural envelope
6 Para-aortic nodes (ascending aorta or phrenic) Nodes lying anterior and lateral to the ascending aorta and the aortic arch or the innominate artery, beneath a line tangential to the upper margin of the aortic arch
7 Subcarinal nodes Nodes lying caudal to the carina of the trachea, but not associated with the lower lobe bronchi or arteries within the lung
8 Paraesophageal nodes (below carina) Nodes lying adjacent to the wall of the esophagus and to the right or left of the midline, excluding subcarinal nodes
9 Pulmonary ligament nodes Nodes lying within the pulmonary ligament, including those in the posterior wall and lower part of the inferior pulmonary vein
10R-10L Hilar nodes The proximal lobar nodes, distal to the mediastinal pleural reflection and the nodes adjacent to the bronchus intermedius on the right; radiographically, the hilar shadow may be created by enlargement of both hilar and interlobar nodes
11R-11L Interlobar nodes Nodes lying between the lobar bronchi
12R-12L Lobar nodes Nodes adjacent to the distal lobar bronchi
13R-13L Segmental nodes Nodes adjacent to the segmental bronchi
14R-14L Subsegmental nodes Nodes around the subsegmental bronchi
Definition of thoracic lymph node stations : medical anatomical diagram

Illustraion of the thoracic lymph nodes based on Mountain and Dresler classification system - Illustration by A. Micheau - Copyright Imaios

 

Thoracic Lymph Node Map Definitions (IASLC)

 

IASLC - Lymph node stations

IASLC - Lymph node stations

 

Liver segmentation

Classification

Segments*

Other names**

Lobes (Godsmith et Woodburne)

Parts (Couinaud)

Divisions*

Hepatic parts*

I Posterior segment; Caudate lobe; Spigel lobe Caudate lobe     Posterior liver; Posterior part of liver;
II Left posterior lateral segment Latéral supérior Left lobe Left lateral Left lateral division Left liver; Left part of liver
III Left anterior lateral segment Latéral inférior, left paramédian Left paramedian
IV Left medial segment

Quadrate lobe

IVa : left superomedial

IVb : left inferomedial

Left medial division
V Anterior medial segment Anteroinferior Right lobe Right paramedian Right medial division Right liver; Right part of liver
VIII Posterior medial segment Anterosuperior
VI Anterior lateral segment Posteroinferior Right lateral Right lateral division
VII Posterior lateral segment; Posterosuperior

* Segments, divisions and parts from Terminologia Anatomica

** Other names commonly used (Couinaud Segments)

Hepatic segmentation

Hepatic segmentation

 

Peritoneal Cancer Index

Peritoneal Cancer Index

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