Objetivos pedagógicos

Learning objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able:

  • To list the main difficulties in cardiac MRI
  • Present the methods to overcome these
  • Explain the principles of ECG gating
  • Describe the techniques and results of:
    • Morphological and functional cardiac exploration
    • Cine phase-contrast velocity mapping
    • Myocardial perfusion and late enhancement imaging
    • Coronary MR angiography

Pontos principais

Application Sequence Gating Breath. Prep Inj. Blood Contr.

Fast SE

 with Dark blood preparation

P H DB T1, T2
Morphology Ultrafast SE
 with Dark blood preparation
P L/A DB T1, T2
function Balanced steady state GE cine sequence
 ± tagging ± stress
R/P H/F ± tagging ± stress
 (Dobu tamine)
Flow Phase contrast R/P H PE ● +
 ○ –
Speed (phase)
Perfusion GE-EPI, ultrafast GE or GE with balanced gradients and preparation by saturation recuperation (SR) P H/C/F SR Gado
 1st p.
 ± stress
Delayed enhancement IR/PSIR – ultrafast GE
 with TI adapted to suppress the signal from the healthy myocardium (IR) or in PSIR technique
delayed Gado Healthy myo cardium,


Gating: P = prospective, R = retrospective

Breathing: H = Breath-hold, F = Free breathing, C = Respiratory compensation

Preparation: DB = Dark Blood, PE = Phase encoding, SR = Saturation Recuperation, IR = Inversion recuperation, PSIR = Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery

Injection: Dobu = Dobutamine, Adenos. = Adenosine, Gado = Gadolinium chelates

Blood signal: ● = dark blood, ○ = bright blood, ● + = flow moving toward the observer, in black, ○ – = flow moving away from the observer, in white


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