The fibular artery (peroneal artery; a. peronæa) is deeply seated on the back of the fibular side of the leg.
It arises from the posterior tibial, about 2.5 cm. below the lower border of the Popliteus, passes obliquely toward the fibula, and then descends along the medial side of that bone, contained in a fibrous canal between the Tibialis posterior and the Flexor hallucis longus, or in the substance of the latter muscle. It then runs behind the tibiofibular syndesmosis and divides into lateral calcaneal branches which ramify on the lateral and posterior surfaces of the calcaneus.
It is covered, in the upper part of its course, by the Soleus and deep transverse fascia of the leg; below, by the Flexor hallucis longus.
Peculiarities in Origin.—The fibular artery may arise 7 or 8 cm. below the Popliteus, or from the posterior tibial high up, or even from the popliteal.
Its size is more frequently increased than diminished; and then it either reinforces the posterior tibial by its junction with it, or altogether takes the place of the posterior tibial in the lower part of the leg and foot, the latter vessel only existing as a short muscular branch. In those rare cases where the peroneal artery is smaller than usual, a branch from the posterior tibial supplies its place; and a branch from the anterior tibial compensates for the diminished anterior fibular artery. In one case the fibular artery was entirely wanting.
Branches.—The branches of the fibular are: