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神经解剖图集

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

出版于 星期二, 2009年 9月 8日

部分: 脑、脸及颈部解剖图

图像和解剖学参考

 

这单元阐述中枢神经系统以及大脑部分,内容包括64张图示、图解和解剖图,均以矢量格式呈现,故此神经解剖图集能完整在网站上展示。

脑部图解和图示

我们透过医学成像的3D技术重组脑部图解和图示,再使用Adobe Illustrator重新绘画和上色。

针对医学生、医护学生、实习医生、医师和解剖学家,这些解剖图涵盖主要的图示,帮助他们学习大脑解剖图,也可用作课堂教程材料,或有助于对病人解释病例部分。

此人体解剖图集由几个章节所组成:

  • 神经元的基本结构及人体神经系统的总体图

 

Meninges - Coronal section :Cranial dura mater, Cerebral falx, Subdural space, Extradural space; Epidural space, Arachnoid mater, Subarachnoid space; Leptomeningeal space, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cranial arachnoid mater, Arachnoid granulations, Arachnoid trabeculae, Cranial pia mater, Diploic veins, Superficial cerebral veins

Meninges - Coronal section

 脑脊膜-冠状切片

 

  • 脑脊膜和脑室,包括脑脊髓液的循环、硬脑膜和大脑镰的图解

 

Ventricular system - Neuroanatomy : Fourth ventricle Third ventricle Lateral ventricle Lateral recess Lateral aperture Median aperture Interventricular foramen Aqueduct of midbrain; Cerebral aqueduct Occipital horn of lateral ventricle; Posterior horn of lateral ventricle Temporal horn of lateral ventricle; Inferior horn of lateral ventricle Atrium

Ventricular system - Neuroanatomy : Lateral aspect

 脑室系统-神经解剖图:侧面

 

Meninges - Cranial dura mater : Gross anatomy - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD : Cranial dura mater,  Cerebral falx,  Cerebellar tentorium,  Tentorial notch; Incisura of tentorium,  Falx cerebelli; Cerebellar falx,  Diaphragma sellae; Sellar diaphragm,  Trigeminal cavity, Pachymeninx; Dura mater

Meninges - Cranial dura mater : Gross anatomy - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD

 脑脊膜-硬脑膜:大体解剖-图解:A. Micheau – MD

 

  • 大脑局部解剖图展示了脑部不同层面(脑、间脑、中脑、后脑、桥梁和小脑、菱脑和前脑),以及不同脑叶的图示(额叶、枕叶、顶叶、颞叶、边缘叶和脑岛)。注:边缘叶是功能性区域,由其他脑叶的部分所组成,故无法精确地界定其位置。

 

 

Neuroanatomy : Cerebral lobes : Frontal lobe, Parietal lobe, Occipital lobe, Temporal lobe, Insula; Insular lobe, Limbic lobe, Brain,  Anatomy diagram

Neuroanatomy : Cerebral lobes

神经解剖学:大脑叶

  • 此外,不同的脑部视图有助用户研究脑沟(中央沟、外侧沟等)及脑回。
  • 接着是连合纤维部分,有胼胝体、穹窿、透明隔、前连合,以及基地核(豆状核、尾状核和苍白球)和相关结构(内侧和外侧髓板、内囊、外囊和最外囊、屏状核)。

 

Corpus callosum - Fornix : Human anatomy (Anatomy diagram - Rostrum of corpus callosum,  Genu of corpus callosum,  Trunk of corpus callosum,  Splenium of corpus callosum, Body of fornix,  Crus of fornix,  Commissure of fornix, Septum pellucidum,  Cave of septum pellucidum,  Lamina of septum pellucidum, Fimbria of hippocampus, Anterior commissure

Corpus callosum - Fornix : Human anatomy (Anatomy diagram)

胼胝体-穹窿:人体解剖(解剖图示)

 

 

 

Basal nuclei and related structures : Caudate nucleus, Head of caudate nucleus, Body of caudate nucleus, Tail of caudate nucleus, Lentiform nucleus; Lenticular nucleus, Internal capsule, Caudolenticular grey bridges; Transcapsular grey bridges, Anterior limb of internale capsule, Anterior thalamic radiation, Frontopontine fibres, Genu of internal capsule, Corticonuclear fibres, Posterior limb of internale capsule, Central thalamic radiation, Thalamus

Basal nuclei and related structures - Superior aspect; Vertical aspect

基底核与关联结构-上面、垂直面

 

  • 边缘叶解剖图详细展示海马体的结构(钩回、齿状回、海马伞、下脚)及帕佩士回路的图示。

 

 

Hippocampus : Cingulate gyrus, Isthmus of cingulate gyrus, Fasciolar gyrus, Parahippocampal gyrus, Uncus, Hippocampal sulcus, Dentate gyrus, Fimbriodentate sulcus, Fimbria of hippocampus, Rhinal sulcus, Parasubiculum, Presubiculum, Subiculum, Hippocampus proper; Ammon s horn

Hippocampus - Medial view/Coronal section

海马体-内视图/冠状切片

 

  • 间脑由以下几部分组成:从后视图可观测到的丘脑,还有通过矢状切片可以观察到的下丘脑(乳头体、灰结节、终板)、上丘脑(松果体、松果体缰)和后丘脑。

 

Diencephalon - Sagittal section : Anatomy diagram : Subthalamus; Ventral thalamus, Metathalamus, Hypothalamus, Mammillary body, Optic chiasma, Tuber cinereum, Median eminence, Third ventricle, Epithalamus, Habenula, Pineal gland

Diencephalon - Sagittal section : Anatomy diagram

间脑-矢状切片:解剖图示

 

  • 针对大脑皮层功能的研究有小矮人身体模型图和布罗德曼区(布罗卡区和韦尼克区)。请注意这些研究资料比较旧和不完整,可能会有错误。

 

Neuroanatomy : Brodmann areas, Broca's area, Wernicke's area, Area 17 - Primary visual cortex (V1), Area 1 - Primary Somatosensory Cortex, Area 4 - Primary Motor Cortex, Area 41 - Primary and Auditory Association Cortex, Area 6 - Premotor cortex

Neuroanatomy : Brodmann areas, Broca's area, Wernicke's area

神经解剖学:布罗德曼区、布罗卡区、韦尼克区

 

  • 这章节以三个大脑解剖切片(轴向、冠状和矢状)来结束。

 

 

Brain - Coronal section : Brain - Anatomy diagram, Brain, Cross-sectional anatomy

Brain - Coronal section : Brain - Anatomy diagram

脑-冠状切片:脑-解剖图示

 

  • 小脑部分备有各种图解,展示小脑叶、裂缝、脑沟和蚓部。

 

 

Cerebellum - Anterior view - Diagram : General Anatomy, Vermis of cerebellum [I-X], Cerebellar fissures,  Folia of cerebellum,  Hemisphere of cerebellum [H II - H X],  Vallecula of cerebellum, Anterior lobe of cerebellum Lingula of cerebellum [I] Precentral fissure; Postlingual fissure Central lobule [II and III] Anterior part; Ventral part [II] Posterior part; Dorsal part [III] Wing of central lobule Inferior part; Ventral part [H II] Superior part; Dorsal part [H III] Preculminate fissure; Postcentral fissure Culmen [IV et V] Anterior part; Ventral part [IV] Intraculminate fissure Posterior part; Dorsal part [V] Anterior quadrangular lobule [H IV and H V] Anterior part; Ventral part [H IV] Posterior part; Dorsal part [H V] Primary fissure; Preclival fissure Posterior lobe of cerebellum Simple lobule [H VI and VI] Declive [VI] Posterior quadrangular lobule [H VI] Posterior superior fissure; Postclival fissure Folium of vermis [VII A] Semilunar lobules; Ansiform lobule [H VII A] Superior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; First crus of aniform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] Horizontal fissure; Intercrural fissure Inferior semilunar lobule of cerebellum; Second crus of ansiform lobule of cerebellum [H VII A] Lunogracile fissure; Ansoparamedian fissure Tuber of vermis [VII B] Gracile lobule; Paramedian lobule [H VII B] Prebiventral fissure; Prepyramidal fissure Pyramis of vermis [VIII] Biventral lobule( H VIII) Lateral part; Pars copularis [H VIII A] Intrabiventral fissure; Anterior inferior fissure Medial Part; Dorsal parafloccularis H VIII B Secondary fissure; Postpyramidal fissure Uvula of vermis [IX] Tonsil of cerebellum; Ventral paraflocculus [H IX] Posterolateral fissure Flocculonodular lobe Nodule [X] Peduncle of flocculus Flocculus [H X]

Cerebellum - Anterior view : Diagram

小脑-前视图:图示

 

  • 我们制作了多个脑干图示,以不同角度呈现中脑、脑桥和延脑的外部结构,及颅神经核在第四脑室的投影。

 

Brainstem : Pons, Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulb, Myelencephalon; Medulla oblongata; Bulb, Cerebellopontine angle, Decussation of pyramids; Motor decussation, Inferior olive

Brainstem - Neuroanatomy

脑干-神经解剖图

 

 

Nucleus of cranial nerve - Brainstem/Fourth ventricle (Posterior view) : Nucleus of oculomotor nerve, Nucleus of trochlear nerve, Motor nucleus of trigeminal nerve, Nucleus of abducens nerve, Motor nucleus of facial nerve, Superior salivatory nucleus, Lacrimal nucleus, Posterior nucleus of vagus nerve; Dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve, Nucleus ambiguus, Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve, Mesencephalic nucleus of trigeminal nerve, Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve, Superior vestibular nucleus (of Bechterew), Medial vestibular nucleus, Lateral vestibular nucleus, Posterior cochlear nucleus; Dorsal cochlear nucleus, Anterior cochlear nucleus; Ventral cochlear nucleus, Nuclei of solitary tract; Solitary nuclei  Spinal nucleus of trigeminal nerve

Nucleus of cranial nerve - Brainstem/Fourth ventricle : Posterior view

脑神经核-脑干/第四脑室:后视图

  • 多个轴向切片图示勾勒出脑干内部结构(核、束、纤维和丘系)。请注意这里很多结构不以教学目的来绘制。
  • 主要知觉传导通路均以最简单方式在图示上呈现(所以会不精确):锥体外束、锥体束、丘系通路、丘索外通路、脊髓小脑系统
  • 下图显示脑动脉血管的侧面、中间观、其轴向和冠状切片,以及Willis环动脉图(颈内动脉、椎动脉、基底动脉、前交通动脉、后交通动脉、前部脑动脉、中部脑动脉、后部脑动脉),用以研究脑部动脉供血系统。

 

Arteries of brain : Cerebral arterial circle, Anterior cerebral artery, Middle cerebral artery, Posterior cerebral artery, Posterior communicating artery, Anterior communicating artery

Arteries of brain - Drawings

脑动脉-绘图

 

  • 下列图解展示硬脑膜静脉窦及海绵窦的冠状切片

 

 

Dural venous sinuses - Cerebral veins : Atlas of human anatomy : Transverse sinus, Confluence of sinuses, Marginal sinus, Occipital sinus, Basilar plexus,, Petrosquamous sinus Sigmoid sinus, Superior sagittal sinus, Inferior sagittal sinus, Straight sinus, Inferior petrosal sinus, Superior petrosal sinus, Cavernous sinus, Anterior intercavernous sinus, Posterior intercavernous sinus, Sphenoparietal sinus

Dural venous sinuses - Cerebral veins : Atlas of human anatomy

硬脑膜静脉窦-脑静脉:人体解剖图集

 

Cavernous sinus - Coronal section : Chiasmatic cistern, Pituitary gland, Optic chiasma, Internal carotid artery, Cavernous part, Oculomotor nerve [III], Trochlear nerve [IV], Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1], Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2], Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI]

Cavernous sinus - Coronal section (Neuroanatomy/Cerebral veins)

海绵窦 - 冠状切片(神经解剖图/脑静脉)

 

 

所有图示由Dr. Antoine Micheau所绘制,版权所有,未经允许,不得复制。

中枢神经系统解剖图:如何使用互动式解剖标记

用户可以选择在图示上显示不同标记:

  • 脑叶/区域
  • 大脑细分为:额叶、顶叶、颞叶、枕叶、脑岛和边缘叶、端脑连合纤维、基地核和相关结构、基底前脑
  • 间脑
  • 小脑
  • 脑干:中脑、脑桥、延髓
  • 颅神经
  • 脑室及脑膜
  • 运动元路径和一些脑干神经核
  • 脑静脉及硬脑膜静脉窦

 

此外,用户可以按标签浏览不同章节。


解剖結構

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