脑神经解剖图

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

出版于 星期三, 2009年 9月 9日

部分: 脑、脸及颈部解剖图

图像和解剖学参考

这是关于脑神经的人体解剖单元,内容包括15张矢量解剖图,涵盖28个附标记的解剖结构,

使用对象为:需要学习人体解剖的医科学生、护士学生、物理治疗师及电放射学技师、实习医师(尤其是神经内科、神经外科和耳鼻喉科)及所有希望快速浏览12对脑神经解剖图的医生。

 

Cranial nerves - Anatomy (Brainstem) : Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI], Accessory nerve [XI], Facial nerve [VII], Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3], Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2], Oculomotor nerve [III], Olfactory nerve [I], Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1], Optic nerve [II], Terminal nerve [0], Trigeminal nerve [V], Trochlear nerve [IV], Vagus nerve [X], Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII], Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX], Hypoglossal nerve [XII]

Cranial nerves - Anatomy : Brainstem (Anterior view)

脑神经解剖图:脑干(前視图)

 

脑神经图示

透过Adobe Illustrator CS4软件,我们把医疗成像和3D重建照片制作成这些解剖图示,之后把图示放到由Adobe Flash CS4创建的解剖单元(附标记)。

  • 首两张图显示脑神经透过脑干和颅底不同的孔进入脑部。

 

Cranial nerves - Cranial base : Foramina : Cribriform plate, Optic canal, Superior orbital fissure, Foramen rotundum, Foramen ovale, Internal acoustic meatus, Jugular foramen, Hypoglossal canal

Cranial nerves - Cranial base : Foramina

脑神经-颅底:孔

 

嗅神经[I] 筛骨水平板
视神经[II] 视觉信道
动眼神经[III] 眶上裂
滑车神经[IV] 眶上裂
眼神经[Va; V1] 眶上裂
上颌神经[Vb; V2] 圆形孔
下颌神经[Vc; V3] 卵圆孔
外展神经[VI] 眶上裂
面神经[VII] 内耳道
中间神经 内耳道
前庭蜗神经[VIII] 内耳道
舌咽神经[IX] 颈静脉孔
迷走神经[X] 颈静脉孔
副神经[XI] 颈静脉孔
舌下神经[XII] 舌下神经管

 

 

  • 图中描绘嗅神经及毗邻与嗅觉有关的脑部结构(嗅球、嗅束、嗅结节、嗅纹...)

 

Olfactory nerve [I] - Anatomy (Anatomical illustrations) : Olfactory nerves, Olfactory bulb, Subcallosal area; Subcallosal gyrus, Paraolfactory sulci, Paraolfactory area, Paraterminal gyrus, Olfactory tract, Medial stria, Olfactory trigone,  Olfactory tubercle ,Lateral stria

Olfactory nerve [I] - Anatomy (Anatomical illustrations)

嗅神经[I]-解剖图(图解)

 

 

  •  图中描绘视神经,包括视束和不同程度的病变(偏盲、象限盲和单眼失明)

 

Optic nerve [II] - Schematic Human anatomy : Retina, Optic chiasma,  Optic tract, Lateral geniculate body, Optic radiation, Visual cortex, [UMLS:C0271202], [UMLS:C0271208], [UMLS:C0544680], [UMLS:C0750958], [UMLS:C0155320]

Optic nerve [II] - Schematic

视神经[II]-示意图

 

 

  • 图中显示动眼神经(动眼神经[III]、滑车神经[IV]、外展神经[VI]),它们经过海绵窦和眶上裂抵达脑干,再显示它们在眼眶的分布和其内容(眼外肌、睫状神经节等)

 

Oculomotor nerve [III] - Trochlear nerve [IV] - Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] : Anatomy atlas : Superior branch,  Inferior branch,  Branch to ciliary ganglion; Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion,  Parasympathetic root of ciliary ganglion; Oculomotor root of ciliary ganglion; Branch of oculomotor nerve to ciliary ganglion, Ciliary ganglion, Obliquus capitis superior, Lateral rectus

Oculomotor nerve [III] - Trochlear nerve [IV] - Abducent nerve; Abducens nerve [VI] : Anatomy atlas

动眼神经[III]-滑车神经[IV]-外展神经[VI]:解剖图集

 

 

  • 在脸部图示中可以找到三叉神经的皮区
  • 在三个不同的图示中可以找到三叉神经的分支
    • 位于眼眶的眼神经及其主要分支(额神经、泪腺神经、筛前神经、筛后神经、鼻睫神经、与睫状神经节联系的分支、眶上神经、滑车上神经、滑车下神经和睫状长神经)
    • 自三叉神经节延伸出的上颌神经及其脸部的分支
    • 下颌神经、其脸部和下颌的分支,以及下颌神经通过鼓索与面神经连接

 

Trigeminal nerve [V] (Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3]) (Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD) : Dermatomes, Chorda tympani, Trigeminal ganglion, Inferior alveolar nerve, Auriculotemporal nerve, Buccal nerve, Nerve to lateral pterygoid, Nerve to medial pterygoid, Nerve to tensor tympani, Nerve to tensor veli palatini, Anterior ethmoidal nerve, Posterior ethmoidal nerve, Frontal nerve, Greater palatine nerve, Infraorbital nerve, Infratrochlear nerve, Lacrimal nerve, Lingual nerve, Masseteric nerve, Mental nerve, Nerve to mylohyoid, Nasociliary nerve, Nasopalatine nerve, Pharyngeal nerve, Nerve to external acoustic meatus, Sublingual nerve, Supraorbital nerve, Supratrochlear nerve, Zygomatic nerve, Superior alveolar nerves, Anterior auricular nerves, Long ciliary nerves, Lesser palatine nerves, Deep temporal nerves

Trigeminal nerve [V] (Ophthalmic nerve; Ophthalmic division [Va; V1] - Maxillary nerve; Maxillary division [Vb; V2] - Mandibular nerve; Mandibular division [Vc; V3]) : Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD

三叉神经[V]-眼神经/眼分支[Va; V1]-上颌神经/上頜分支[Vb; V2]-下颌神经/下颌分支[Vc; V3]):

图解:A. Micheau – MD

 

 

  • 面神经分为两部分:颈内部分(膝神经节、岩大神经、鼓索)及从茎乳孔到达的面部分

 

Facial nerve [VII] - Anatomy : Medical illustrations (Imaios - E-anatomy) :Geniculum, Nerve to stapedius, Posterior auricular nerve, Occipital branch, Auricular branch, Digastric branch, Stylohyoid branch, Communicating branch with glossopharyngeal nerve, Parotid plexus, Temporal branches, Zygomatic branches, Buccal branches, Lingual branch of facial nerve, Marginal mandibular branch, Cervical branch, Intermediate nerve, Geniculate ganglion, Greater petrosal nerve, Parasympathetic root of pterygopalatine ganglion; Greater petrosal nerve, Chorda tympani, Parasympathetic root of submandibular ganglion; Chorda tympani, Communicating branch with tympanic plexus, Communicating branch with vagus nerve

Facial nerve [VII] - Anatomy : Medical illustrations (Imaios - E-anatomy)

面神经[VII]-解剖图: 医学图解(Imaios - E-anatomy)

 

  • 前庭蜗神经通过内耳道入脑,主要支配内耳(耳蜗神经:耳蜗,前庭神经:椭圆囊,球囊,半规管)
Human anatomy - Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII] : Vestibular nerve, Vestibular ganglion, Cochlear communicating branch, Superior part of vestibular nerve, Utriculoampullary nerve, Utricular nerve, Anterior ampullary nerve, Lateral ampullary nerve, Inferior part of vestibular nerve, Posterior ampullary nerve, Saccular nerve, Cochlear nerve, Cochlear ganglion; Spiral ganglion

Human anatomy : Vestibulocochlear nerve [VIII]

人体解剖:前庭蜗神经[VIII]

 

 

  •  图中透过咽和口腔的矢状切片来显示舌咽神经、舌支、咽支、扁桃体支,以及颈动脉窦。
Cranial nerves : Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Diagram : Superior ganglion, Inferior ganglion, Tympanic nerve, Tympanic enlargement; Tympanic ganglion, Tympanic plexus, Tubal branch, Caroticotympanic nerves, Communicating branch with auricular branch of vagus nerve, Communicating branch of vagus with glossopharyngeal nerve, Pharyngeal branches, Stylopharyngeal branch, Carotid branch, Tonsillar branches, Lingual branches, Lesser petrosal nerve; Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion, Parasympathetic root of otic ganglion; Lesser petrosal nerve, Communicating branch with meningeal branch, Communicating branch with auriculotemporal nerve, Communicating branch with chorda tympani

Cranial nerves : Glossopharyngeal nerve [IX] - Diagram

舌咽神经[IX]-图示

 

 

  • 迷走神经及其所有血管、胸腔和腹腔分支的图示

 

Vagus nerve [X] -  Anatomy - Human body : Superior ganglion, Meningeal branch, Auricular branch, Inferior ganglion, Pharyngeal branch, Pharyngeal plexus, Superior laryngeal nerve, External branch, Internal branch, Communicating branch with recurrent laryngeal nerve, Superior cervical cardiac branches, Inferior cervical cardiac branches, Recurrent laryngeal nerve, Right recurrent laryngeal nerve, Left recurrent laryngeal nerve, Tracheal branches, Oesophageal branches, Pharyngeal branches, Thoracic cardiac branches, Bronchial branches, Pulmonary plexus, Oesophageal plexus, Anterior vagal trunk, Anterior gastric branches, Anterior nerve of lesser curvature, Hepatic branches, Pyloric branch, Posterior vagal trunk, Posterior gastric branches, Posterior nerve of lesser curvature, Coeliac branches, Renal branches

Vagus nerve [X] - Anatomy - Human body

人体解剖:迷走神经[X]

 

  • 副神经与迷走神经和颈丛汇合,主要支配斜方肌和胸锁乳突肌

 

Accessory nerve [XI] - Human anatomy (Drawings : Imaios/E-anatomy) : Cranial root; Vagal part,  Spinal root; Spinal part,  Trunk of accessory nerve,  Internal branch,  External branch,  Muscular branches

Accessory nerve [XI] - Human anatomy (Drawings : Imaios/E-anatomy)

人体解剖:副神经[XI] (绘图:Imaios/E-anatomy)

 

 

  • 最后舌下神经与颈丛和颈袢汇合,主要支配舌头

 

Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Illustrations : Tongue, Lingual branches

Hypoglossal nerve [XII] - Illustrations

舌下神经[XII]-图解

 

 

如何使用此人体解剖图集

 

图解均按以下3个类别来标记:脑神经、孔和内脏。

用户可以选择选单上的“图解”或逐一按脑神经的选项观看解剖图示。


解剖結構

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