For convenience of description of the viscera, as well as of reference to the morbid conditions of the contained parts, the abdomen is artificially divided into nine regions by imaginary planes, two horizontal and two sagittal, passing through the cavity, the edges of the planes being indicated by lines drawn on the surface of the body.

Of the horizontal planes the upper or transpyloric is indicated by a line encircling the body at the level of a point midway between the jugular notch and the symphysis pubis, the lower by a line carried around the trunk at the level of a point midway between the transpyloric and the symphysis pubis.

The latter is practically the intertubercular plane of Cunningham, who pointed out that its level corresponds with the prominent and easily defined tubercle on the iliac crest about 5 cm. behind the anterior superior iliac spine.

By means of these imaginary planes the abdomen is divided into three zones, which are named from above downward the subcostal, umbilical, and hypogastric zones. Each of these is further subdivided into three regions by the two sagittal planes, which are indicated on the surface by lines drawn vertically through points half-way between the anterior superior iliac spines and the symphysis pubis.

The middle region of the upper zone is called the epigastric; and the two lateral regions, the right and left hypochondriac. The central region of the middle zone is the umbilical; and the two lateral regions, the right and left lumbar. The middle region of the lower zone is the hypogastric or pubic region; and the lateral regions are the rightand left iliac or inguinal 



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