This human anatomy module is dedicated to the cranial nerves. It consists of 15 vector anatomical drawings with 280 anatomical structures captioned.
It is intended for medical students working their human anatomy, student nurses, physiotherapists and electro-radiological manipulators, to medical interns – especially those working in neurology, neurosurgery, otolaryngology – and for any physician needing quick and easy access to anatomical illustrations of the twelve cranial nerves.
Diagrams of cranial nerves
These original anatomical drawings were produced digitally, working from medical imaging sources and 3D reconstructions using Adobe Illustrator.
They were then included in anatomical modules and labelled using Adobe Flash.
- The first two illustrations concern the cranial nerves at their emergence from the brain stem and their passage through the various foramina of the cranial base
- The olfactory nerves (I) have been represented together with adjoining brain structures involved in olfaction (olfactory bulb and tract, olfactory tubercle, olfactory stria...)
- The optic nerve (II) has been represented in a diagram that brings together the optic pathways and different levels of possible lesions (hemianopia, quadrantanopia, monocular blindness)
- The oculomotor nerves (oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear (IV) and abducens (VI)) are represented on the same diagram, from their emergence from the brainstem through the cavernous sinus and superior orbital fissure, to their innervation of the orbital cavity and its contents (extra-ocular muscles, ciliary ganglion...).
- The dermatomes of the trigeminal nerve (V) are represented on a diagram of the face
- The branches of the trigeminal nerve (V) are represented in three different diagrams
- The ophthalmic nerve (V1) in the orbital cavity with its principal branches (frontal nerve, lacrimal nerve, anterior and posterior ethmoidal nerve, nasociliary nerve, branch communicating with the ciliary ganglion, supraorbital nerve, supratrochlear nerve, infra-trochlear nerve, long ciliary nerves)
- The maxillary nerve (V2) from the trigeminal ganglion (Gasser's ganglion) with its various branches destined for the face
- The mandibular nerve (V3) with its branches destined for the face and jaw as well as its connections with the facial nerve via the chorda tympani.
- The pattern of the facial nerve (VII) is divided into two parts, one intrapetrous part with the geniculate ganglion, the greater petrosal nerve and chorda tympani, the other part consisting of the facial area after emergence from the stylomastoid foramen.
- The vestibulocochlear nerve (auditory vestibular nerve) (VIII) passes in the internal auditory meatus to innervate structures in the inner ear (cochlear nerve: cochlear, vestibular nerve: utricle, saccule, semicircular canals)
- The glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) is schematised by means of a sagittal section of the pharynx and oral cavity, with its pharyngeal, tonsillar and lingual branches and for the carotid sinus.
- A diagram of the vagus nerve (X) with all its branches for the vessels, the chest and the abdomino-pelvic viscera.
- The accessory nerve (XI) innervates the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles after anastomoses with the vagus nerve and cervical plexus.
- Finally, the hypoglossal nerve (XII) principally innervates the tongue after anastomosis with the cervical plexus and the ansa cervicalis.
Using this atlas of human anatomy
The illustrations are captioned in three categories: cranial nerves, foramina and organs
The user views the anatomical drawings by using the "illustrations" menu where each item corresponds to a cranial nerve.