The baseline cranial CT was assessed by two stroke neurologists. Both received training on the anatomy of the insular cortex with two online brain atlas (http://www.thehumanbrain.info/brain/bn_brain_atlas/brain.html and https://www.imaios.com/en). Both investigators were blinded to the clinical data.
The TSM of all participants were then averaged to create a TSM of the elder group. The distributions of time-shift values in different vascular territories were analyzed according to a custom-made atlas (based on previous knowledge of vascular territories and watershed areas WSA as depicted in Radiopaedia.org, courtesy of Dr Frank Gaillard and the IMAIOS online atlas https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Head-and-Neck/Brain-
Schematic view of the different sources of variability in a multicenter MRI study (adapted from www.imaios.com)
Many of these studies have described significant GM volume loss in the frontal, insular, anterior cingulate, caudate, putaminal, thalamic, and temporal polar regions in bvFTD27-29 and predominant temporal (temporal pole, anterior hippocampus) and extratempora (ventromedial prefrontal cortex insula, anterior cingulate, caudate) region in PPA.28,30,31 Hence, the ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres with the help of e-anatomy of IMAIOS (https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Head-and-Neck/Brain-MRI-3D) and included the following: the GM at the precentral gyrus just anterior to central sulcus, adjacent subcortical WM and CSF in the central sulcus, the superior frontal gyrus medial to superior frontal sulcus, temporal pole, insula, basal ganglia regions (caudate), putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, frontal WM, anterior cingulate defined by the gray matter abutting and posterior to the cingulate sulcus along with adjacent medial frontal lobe, hippocampus including its head and body, and, finally, the dentate nucleus (On-line Figure).
High-resolution, T1-weighted images acquired on a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner using 1.5-mm slices were used. Cerebral, frontal lobe, and temporal lobe volumes were contoured with an online MRI crosssectional atlas of the brain serving as a reference (https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy), and this was supervised by the pediatric neuroradiologist (D.L.) on the protocol.
IMAIOS Anatomy (www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy):
• Annual subscription with free modules to try out before
• Detailed interactive multi-planar anatomy with various options
to display or hide certain systems (includes plain films, CT,
• Helpful when trying to identify abnormal structures
• Quiz mode available
Supplemental information can be gained from credible websites to aide in digesting some of the more complex or unfamiliar information or terms used in the test. Websites like www.med-ed.virginia.edu/courses/rad/headCT/trauma and https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Head-and-Neck/Brain-MRI-3D were helpful for comparisons regarding the diagnostic imaging in many sections. Websites like eMedicine, Merck Manuals, and www.labtestsonline.org were invaluable in describing normal lab values and unfamiliar medical terms.
Information was sought from (1) anatomy  and cardiac imaging  textbooks (2) IMAIOS e-anatomy  (3) key articles describing cardiac segmentation models or normal cardiac anatomy [14–19] and (4) the echocardiogram and angiogram reports of 500 women included as cases in a population-based study of women who had a major coronary event after breast cancer radiotherapy .
The FreeSurfer segmentations of the cerebellum and brainstem was manually corrected for errors and modified according to classic anatomic definitions , recently published methods [23,38], and online resources showing segmentations in sagittal view (Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, LONI, University of Southern California, USA, http://resource.loni.usc.edu/resources/downloads/research-protocols/masking-regions/brainstem/) and all three views (IMAIOS SAS, France, https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Head-and-Neck/Brain-MRI-3D).
Anatomical drawing of the common tendinous ring, anterior view. 1: optic nerve; 2: ophthalmic artery; 3: superior branch of oculomotor nerve (III); 4: superior rectus muscle; 5: levator palpebrae superioris muscle; 6: superior oblique muscle; 7: anterior ethmoidal foramen. Copyright IMAIOS 2016. Published with permission
Identification of anatomical location of active areas was based on visual assessment of obtained images, determination of coordinates in MNI space for each maximum and value of T- and Z- statistic and by using the e-Anatomy atlas of human anatomy (IMAIOS).
Lesion location (IMAIOS online atlas) and leukoaraiosis (Wahlund scale) were determined by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography scan. Subsets of patients also underwent a neuropsychological evaluation (N = 50) and an electroencephalogram (N = 33) before discharge.
Performing NTCP calculations was possible for 25 of the re-RT patients. During the process of obtaining the volume and dose values from original and subsequent treatment plans, we noted that a significant variation can occur in how the OAR are contoured between different providers. Using CNS contouring atlases [23, 24] (IMAIOS SAS Anatomy, IMAIOS SAS, www.imaios.com, www.qarc.org/cog/ACNS0331Atlas.pdf ) we recontoured OAR structures to enable a more adequate calculation of mean dose to the organ (Fig. 1).
e-Anatomy (2015) e-Anatomy web site. http://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy/Head-and-Neck/Brain-MRI-3D. Accessed 20 Oct 2015
e-Anatomy: radiologic anatomy atlas of the human body, https://www.imaios.com/en/e-Anatomy (accessed June 2015).