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The alveolar process (alveolar bone) is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on bones that bear teeth (maxilla and mandible).
On the maxilla, the alveolar process is a ridge on the inferior surface. It makes up the thickest part of the maxilla.
The alveolar process contains a region of compact bone adjacent to the periodontal ligament called lamina dura. It is this part which is attached to the cementum of the roots by the periodontal ligament.
The buccinator muscle attaches to the alveolar processes of both the maxilla and mandible.