The ramus of ischium may be divided in two parts :

  • The Superior Ramus (ramus superior oss. ischii; descending ramus).—The superior ramus projects downward and backward from the body and presents for examination three surfaces: external, internal, and posterior. The external surface is quadrilateral in shape. It is bounded above by a groove which lodges the tendon of the Obturator externus; below, it is continuous with the inferior ramus; in front it is limited by the posterior margin of the obturator foramen; behind, a prominent margin separates it from the posterior surface. In front of this margin the surface gives origin to the Quadratus femoris, and anterior to this to some of the fibers of origin of the Obturator externus; the lower part of the surface gives origin to part of the Adductor magnus. The internal surface forms part of the bony wall of the lesser pelvis. In front it is limited by the posterior margin of the obturator foramen.Below, it is bounded by a sharp ridge which gives attachment to a falciform prolongation of the sacrotuberous ligament, and, more anteriorly, gives origin to the Transversus perinæi and Ischiocavernosus. Posteriorly the ramus forms a large swelling, the tuberosity of the ischium, which is divided into two portions: a lower, rough, somewhat triangular part, and an upper, smooth, quadrilateral portion. The lower portion is subdivided by a prominent longitudinal ridge, passing from base to apex, into two parts; the outer gives attachment to the Adductor magnus, the inner to the sacrotuberous ligament. The upper portion is subdivided into two areas by an oblique ridge, which runs downward and outward; from the upper and outer area the Semimembranosus arises; from the lower and inner, the long head of the Biceps femoris and the Semitendinosus.
  • The Inferior Ramus (ramus inferior oss. ischii; ascending ramus).—The inferior ramus is the thin, flattened part of the ischium, which ascends from the superior ramus, and joins the inferior ramus of the pubis—the junction being indicated in the adult by a raised line. The outer surface is uneven for the origin of the Obturator externus and some of the fibers of the Adductor magnus; its inner surface forms part of the anterior wall of the pelvis. Itsmedial border is thick, rough, slightly everted, forms part of the outlet of the pelvis, and presents two ridges and an intervening space. The ridges are continuous with similar ones on the inferior ramus of the pubis: to the outer is attached the deep layer of the superficial perineal fascia (fascia of Colles), and to the inner the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm. If these two ridges be traced downward, they will be found to join with each other just behind the point of origin of the Transversus perinæi; here the two layers of fascia are continuous behind the posterior border of the muscle. To the intervening space, just in front of the point of junction of the ridges, the Transversus perinæi is attached, and in front of this a portion of the crus penis vel clitoridis and the Ischiocavernosus. Its lateral border is thin and sharp, and forms part of the medial margin of the obturator foramen.

This definition incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy (20th U.S. edition of Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, published in 1918 – from


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