The sublingual gland is the smallest of the three glands. It is situated beneath the mucous membrane of the floor of the mouth, at the side of the frenulum linguæ, in contact with the sublingual depression on the inner surface of the mandible, close to the symphysis.
It is narrow, flattened, shaped somewhat like an almond, and weighs nearly 2 gm. It is in relation, above, with the mucous membrane; below, with the Mylohyoideus; behind, with the deep part of the submaxillary gland; laterally, with the mandible; and medially, with the Genioglossus, from which it is separated by the lingual nerve and the submaxillary duct.
The excretory ducts of sublingual glands are from eight to twenty in number. Of the smaller sublingual ducts (ducts of Rivinus), some join the submaxillary duct; others open separately into the mouth, on the elevated crest of mucous membrane (plica sublingualis), caused by the projection of the gland, on either side of the frenulum linguæ. One or more join to form the major sublingual duct (duct of Bartholin), which opens into the submaxillary duct.
Vessels and Nerves.—The sublingual gland is supplied with blood from the sublingual and submental arteries. Its nerves are derived from the lingual, the chorda tympani, and the sympathetic.