Origin: Subscapular fossa
Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus
Artery: Subscapular artery
Nerve: Upper subscapular nerve, lower subscapular nerve(C5, C6)
Action: Rotates medially humerus; stabilizes shoulder
Antagonist: Infraspinatus and teres minor
The Subscapularis is a large triangular muscle which fills the subscapular fossa, and arises from its medial two-thirds and from the lower two-thirds of the groove on the axillary border of the bone. Some fibers arise from tendinous laminae which intersect the muscle and are attached to ridges on the bone; others from an aponeurosis, which separates the muscle from the Teres major and the long head of the Triceps brachii. The fibers pass lateralward, and, gradually converging, end in a tendon which is inserted into the lesser tubercle of the humerus and the front of the capsule of the shoulder-joint. The tendon of the muscle is separated from the neck of the scapula by a large bursa, which communicates with the cavity of the shoulder-joint through an aperture in the capsule.
Nerves.—The Subscapularis is supplied by the fifth and sixth cervical nerves through the upper and lower subscapular nerves.
Actions.—The Subscapularis rotates the head of the humerus inward; when the arm is raised, it draws the humerus forward and downward. It is a powerful defence to the front of the shoulder-joint, preventing displacement of the head of the humerus.