Description

The testes are two glandular organs, which secrete the semen; they are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords.

At an early period of fetal life the testes are contained in the abdominal cavity, behind the peritoneum. Before birth they descend to the inguinal canal, along which they pass with the spermatic cord, and, emerging at the subcutaneous inguinal ring, they descend into the scrotum, becoming invested in their course by coverings derived from the serous, muscular, and fibrous layers of the abdominal parietes, as well as by the scrotum.

The Testes are suspended in the scrotum by the spermatic cords, the left testis hanging somewhat lower than its fellow. The average dimensions of the testis are from 4 to 5 cm. in length, 2.5 cm. in breadth, and 3 cm. in the antero-posterior diameter; its weight varies from 10.5 to 14 gm.

Each testis is of an oval form, compressed laterally, and having an oblique position in the scrotum; the upper pole (Superior pole) is directed forward and a little lateralward; the lower pole (Inferior pole), backward and a little medialward; the anterior convex border looks forward and downward, the posterior or straight border, to which the cord is attached, backward and upward.

The anterior border and lateral surfaces, as well as both extremities of the organ, are convex, free, smooth, and invested by the visceral layer of the tunica vaginalis. The posterior border, to which the cord is attached, receives only a partial investment from that membrane. Lying upon the lateral edge of this posterior border is a long, narrow, fiattened body, named the epididymis.

 

The external aspect of the testis is described with :

  • An upper pole (Superior pole)
  • A lower pole (Inferior pole)
  • A lateral surface
  • A medial surface
  • A anterior border : the free anterior margin
  • A posterior border : the posterior margin attached to a fold of the serous membrane

The testis is invested by three tunics: the tunica vaginalis, tunica albuginea, and tunica vasculosa

 

The coverings of the testes are, the :

  • Scrotum
    • Dartos tunic
    • Skin
    • Cremaster.
    • Infundibuliform fascia.
    • Intercrural fascia.
    • Tunica vaginalis.

Appendages of the Testis and Epididymis :

On the upper extremity of the testis, just beneath the head of the epididymis, is a minute oval, sessile body, the appendix of the testis (hydatid of Morgagni); it is the remnant of the upper end of the Müllerian duct. On the head of the epididymis is a second small stalked appendage (sometimes duplicated); it is named the appendix of the epididymis (pedunculated hydatid), and is usually regarded as a detached efferent duct.

 

 

Vessels and Nerves :

  • The arteries supplying the coverings of the testes are: the superficial and deep external pudendal branches of the femoral, the superficial perineal branch of the internal pudendal, and the cremasteric branch from the inferior epigastric.
  • The veins follow the course of the corresponding arteries.
  • The lymphatics end in the inguinal lymph glands.
  • The nerves are the ilioinguinal and lumboinguinal branches of the lumbar plexus, the two superficial perineal branches of the internal pudendal nerve, and the pudendal branch of the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve.

This definition incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy (20th U.S. edition of Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, published in 1918 – from http://www.bartleby.com/107/).

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