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Atlas of lower extremity anatomy

Antoine Micheau - MD, Denis Hoa - MD

Published on Sunday 04 October 2009

SECTION: Musculoskeletal anatomy (upper and lower extremities)

Images and anatomical references

This module contains 119 illustrations with 640 anatomical structures captioned.

 

This atlas of human anatomy is designed for students in medicine and particularly in preparing for the first year of medical studies (PCEM1), for pharmacological students preparing for the first year of pharmacology (PCEP1) and for health professionals (nursing students, physiotherapy, osteopathy, manipulative radiology, physicians, surgeons, radiologists) in orthopaedics, rheumatology, functional rehabilitation, radiology...

 

Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone - Lateral view : 3D pictures, Anatomy atlas, Pelvic girdle,  Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone, Acetabulum,  Acetabular margin,  Acetabular fossa,  Acetabular notch,  Lunate surface,  Ischiopubic ramus,  Obturator foramen,  Greater sciatic notch,  Ilium,  Body of ilium Supraacetabular groove Ala of ilium; Wing of ilium Arcuate line Iliac crest, Outer lip,  Tuberculum of iliac crest,  Intermediate line , Anterior superior iliac spine,  Anterior inferior iliac spine  ,Posterior superior iliac spine,  Posterior inferior iliac spine,  Gluteal surface,  Anterior gluteal line,  Posterior gluteal line,  Inferior gluteal line,  Ischium,  Body,  Ramus,  Ischial tuberosity,  Ischial spine,  Lesser sciatic notch,  Pubis,  Body,  Pubic tubercle,  Pubic crest,  Superior pubic ramus,  Obturator crest,  Obturator groove

Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone - Lateral view : 3D pictures

 

 

Illustrations of the anatomy of the lower limb

The colour illustrations were created in vector format using Adobe Illustrator in order to be perfectly adapted to the web. These original anatomical drawings were produced by Dr. Antoine Micheau. They were then integrated into the module by Dr. Denis Hoa with the help of Adobe Flash.

This module is divided into several chapters:

 

  • Regions of the lower limb are illustrated by anterior and posterior views of the hip, thigh, knee, leg, ankle, tarsus, and toes of the feet allowing the visualisation of regions such as the gluteal region the femoral triangle (scarpa), the popliteal fossa, the sural region (calf), the ankle region, the dorsum of the foot and plantar region.

 

Regions of lower limb - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - E-anatomy, Imaios : Gluteal region, Intergluteal cleft; Natal cleft, Gluteal fold, Hip region, Femoral region, Anterior region of thigh, Femoral triangle, Posterior region of thigh, Knee region, Anterior region of knee, Posterior region of knee, Popliteal fossa, Leg region, Anterior region of leg, Posterior region of leg, Sural region, Anterior talocrural region; Anterior ankle region, Posterior talocrural region; Posterior ankle region, Lateral retromalleolar region, Medial retromalleolar region, Foot region, Heel region, Dorsum of foot; Dorsal region of foot, Sole; Plantar region, Ankle region, Metatarsal region, Digits of foot; Toes

Regions of lower limb - Illustrations: A. Micheau - MD - E-anatomy, Imaios

 

  • The osteology of the lower limb is particularly detailed, with 3D view and patterns of bone structures and muscle insertions and ligaments of the hip bone, the femur, the patella, tibia, the fibula, tibial plateau, the tibial pilon, the foot (talus, calcaneus, cuboid, cuneiform bones, metatarsal bones, phalanges proximal, middle and distal). First, a posterior and anterior view of the lower limb skeleton allows the different joints (sacroiliac joint, hip joint, upper and lower tibio-fibular joint, joints of the foot) to be displayed.

 

Human anatomy : Bones of upper limb - Joints of lower limb / Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone, Femur; Thigh bone, Patella, Tibia, Fibula, Bones of foot, Tarsal bones, Metatarsals [I-V], Phalanges, Sacroiliac joint, Hip joint, Knee joint, Tibiofibular joint; Superior tibiofibular joint, Tibiofibular syndesmosis; Inferior tibiofibular joint, Joints of foot

Bones of upper limb - Joints of lower limb : Drawings

 

 

  • The chapter on the various joints of the lower limb displays the ligaments and articulatory structures:    
    • Articulations of the pelvic girdle with the sacroiliac, sacrospinous, sacrotuberous and sacrococcygeal ligaments delimiting the greater sciatic foramen and the less sciatic foramen
    • An anterolateral view of the hip joint showing the articular surface of the femoral head, the ligament of the femoral head, the acetabular labrum (cotyloid ligament), the orbicularis zone (annular ligament) and the insertion of the articulatory capsule.
    • A sagittal section of the knee joint to visualize the joint cavity with recesses, meniscal structures, ligaments and patellar arcuate popliteal, and bursa of the knee (infrapatellar bursa, subcutaneous...)
    • 4 anatomical drawings show the knee joint in anterior and posterior views with superficial and deep layers, describing the anatomy of the cruciate ligaments, menisci, collateral ligaments, the patellar ligament...
    • Finally, the user will find illustrations of anatomical joints of the ankle, tarsus, metatarsus and toes, including the tibial-fibular ligaments, the collateral ligaments of the ankle, the bifurcated ligament, the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament (spring ligament), the long plantar ligament and all the ligaments comprising the transverse tarsal joints (Chopart ligament), tarsometatarsal (Lisfranc ligaments) and ankle (talocrural joint).

 

Knee joint - Tibia/Superior articular surface : Lateral meniscus, Medial meniscus, Anterior cruciate ligament,  Posterior cruciate ligament, Fibular collateral ligament, Tibial collateral ligament, Tibiofibular joint; Superior tibiofibular joint

Knee joint - Tibia/Superior articular surface : Superior view

 

  • The myology of the lower limb is also particularly well represented in this atlas of anatomy, with multiple anatomical charts and diagrams:
    • The first diagram summarises the different muscular compartments (fascial compartments) of the thigh and leg, and the different fascias (crural fascia, intermuscular septum, interosseous membrane, adductor canal, fascia lata)
    • A diagram of the pelvis in medial view shows the muscles such as the psoas major, the iliac, piriformis and obturator internus muscles.
    • 3 illustrations of the anterior thigh region detail the anatomy of the femoral quadriceps muscle (rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis and vastus intermedius muscles), the gracilis, sartorius and the adductors.

 

Muscles; Muscular system - Human body : Anterior compartment of thigh - Human anatomy :Iliacus, Psoas major, Tensor of fascia lata, Sartorius,  Quadriceps femori,  Rectus femoris, Vastus lateralis,  Vastus intermedius,  Vastus medialis, Pectineus, Adductor longus, Adductor magnus, Gracilis, Iliotibial tract, Lateral patellar retinaculum, Medial patellar retinaculum, Patellar ligament

Muscles; Muscular system - Human body : Anterior compartment of thigh

 

  • 4 diagrams of the posterior thigh and gluteal regions illustrate muscular structures such as the gluteus maximus, medius and minimus muscles as well as the biceps femoris, the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and quadrates femoris muscles
    • A side view of the muscles of the thigh shows the tensor fascia lata muscle and iliotibial tract.
    • A representation of the anterior region of the leg describes the tibialis anterior muscle and its tendon, the extensor digitorum longus and the extensor hallucis longus muscles.
    • 3 anatomical drawings of the posterior region of the leg allow the user to visualise the gastrocnemius muscle (medial and lateral head), the soleus, popliteus, plantar is and long and short peroneal muscles as well as the flexor muscle of the hallux and the flexor digitorum longus muscle.
    • A lateral view of the leg and anterior view of the ankle offer anatomical illustrations of the tendons of the long and short fibular muscles, the tendons of the extensor hallucis longs and all the tendons viewed at the dorsal surface of the foot. On this anatomical image it is also possible to visualise the extensor retinaculum.
    • 5 diagrams of the different muscle layers of the sole of the foot describe the muscle layers of the foot, from the most superficial (plantar aponeurosis, abductor hallucis muscle) to the deepest (quadratus plantæ, adductor hallucis and plantar interossei muscles).
    • A medial view of the ankle shows the retinacula of the flexors and extensors, the synovial sheaths and the relationship between the tendons and neurovascular structures located behind the medial malleolus.

 

Ankle/Medial border of foot; Tibial border of foot Medical illustrations : Flexor digitorum longus, Calcaneal tendon, Medial malleolus, Tendinous sheath of tibialis anterior, Tendinous sheath of extensor hallucis longus, Groove for tendon of fibularis longus; Groove for tendon of peroneus longus, Tendon, Inferior extensor retinaculum, Flexor retinaculum, Subcutaneous bursa of medial malleolus, Ankle joint, Calcaneus

Ankle - Medial view

 

  • The chapter details the trajectory and branches of the internal iliac artery, the external iliac, primitive iliac, common femoral, deep and superficial popliteal arteries as well as the anterior tibial, posterior tibial, fibular (peroneal), dorsalis pedis and deep plantar arch arteries.

 

Arteries of lower limb - Thigh - Human anatomy : Femoral artery, Deep artery of thigh, Popliteal artery, Anterior tibial artery, Posterior tibial artery, Fibular artery, Adductor hiatus, Lateral circumflex femoral artery

Arteries of lower limb - Thigh : Anterior view

 

  • Two diagrams describe the superficial venous vasculature of the thigh and leg (great saphenous vein and small saphenous vein).
  • A diagram shows the various inguinal lymph nodes (lymphatic ganglia).
  • The chapter on the innervation of the lower limb presents diagrams of the lumbosacral plexus and its main nerve branches for the lower limb (lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral nerve, sciatic nerve and posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh and obturator nerve). The dermatomes of the lower limb are visualised in anterior and posterior views, including the dermatomes of the saphenous nerve, sural nerve, cutaneous nerve and peroneal nerve.

 

Lumbosacral plexus - Anatomy : Human anatomy : Lumbar nerves [L1-L5], Lumbar plexus, Sacral plexus, Lumbosacral trunk, Coccygeal plexus, Anococcygeal nerve, Coccygeal nerve, Posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh; Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, Lateral sural cutaneous nerve, Nerve to quadratus femoris, Nerve to obturator internus, Nerve to piriformis, Femoral nerve, Genitofemoral nerve, Inferior gluteal nerve, Superior gluteal nerve, Iliohypogastric nerve; Iliopubic nerve, Ilioinguinal nerve, Obturator nerve, Sciatic nerve, Sural nerve, Tibial nerve

Lumbosacral plexus - Anatomy : Human anatomy

 

  • The last chapter of this human anatomy module presents anatomical sections of the lower limb, centring on the gluteal region, the thigh, the femoral region, a section of the popliteal fossa, anatomical sections of the leg, an axial section of the ankle, a frontal section of the tarsus area and a frontal section of the forefoot.

 

Cross section - Anatomy (Transverse/Axial): Hip, Buttocks, Pelvic girdle, Thigh : Hip joint, Head, Femoral artery, Femoral vein, Sciatic nerve, Tensor of fascia lata, Gluteus maximus, Acetabular fossa, Obturator internus, Fovea for ligament of head

Cross section - Anatomy (Transverse/Axial): Hip, Buttocks, Pelvic girdle, Thigh

 

Cross section - Human body  - Leg/Calf : Tibia, Fibula, Interosseous membrane of leg, Posterior intermuscular septum of leg, Deep fascia of leg, Small saphenous vein; Short saphenous vein, Great saphenous vein, Sural veins, Gastrocnemius, Soleus, Tibialis anterior, Extensor digitorum longus, Fibularis tertius; Peroneus tertius, Extensor hallucis longus, Fibularis longus, Fibularis brevis, Triceps surae, Plantaris, Popliteus, Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum longus, Flexor hallucis longus ,Extensor hallucis brevis, Extensor digitorum brevis, Abductor hallucis, Flexor hallucis brevis, Adductor hallucis

Cross section - Human body (Axial/Transverse) : Leg/Calf

 

Display of the anatomic captions of the lower limb and use of this online atlas of human anatomy
The "anatomical structures" tab allows the user to selectively display the captions of type: region, bones: skeletal system, joints, ligaments, muscles, muscular system, tendons, fascia, synovial bursa, arteries, veins, lymph nodes (ganglia) and nerves of the lower limb

 

Dorsum of foot - Anatomy : Bones; Skeletal system, Joints of foot, Muscles Attachment, Tarsal bones,  Talus, Calcaneus, Navicular, Medial cuneiform,  Intermediate cuneiform; Middle cuneiform,  Lateral cuneiform,  Cuboid, Metatarsals [I-V], Phalanges, Sesamoid bones, Subtalar joint; Talocalcaneal joint, Transverse tarsal joint,  Talocalcaneonavicular joint, Calcaneocuboid joint,  Cuneonavicular joint, Intercuneiform joints, Tarsometatarsal joints, Interphalangeal joints of foot

Dorsum of foot - Anatomy : Bones; Skeletal system, Joints of foot

 

The "illustrations" tab provides access to individual chapters.

 

Language and terminology for the nomenclature of anatomical structures of the lower limb.

 

 The Terminologia Anatomica has been used by preference to caption all the anatomical structures, with a translation into English, French, Japanese, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Spanish.


Anatomical parts

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