Antoine Micheau, MD , Denis Hoa, MD
Wednesday 12 April 2017Limbs
This atlas of cross sectional anatomy of the glenohumeral joint (shoulder) is based on imagery by magnetic resonance (MRI). Each anatomical structure is labelled interactively. This tool is at the same time useful for the training and teaching of the anatomy, but also for experts to illustrate a course or an explanation of pathology to a patient, in particular within the framework of rotator cuff tendon injuries and joint disease.
This software is open and free for anyone curious about anatomy, but it was particularly conceived for radiologists, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, general practitioners, medical students (assistance with the preparation of medical boards), as well as radiologic technologists.
Cross-sectional anatomy: MR of the shoulder
An MRI of the shoulder of a healthy subject was performed in the 3 planes of space (coronal, axial, sagittal) commonly used in osteoarticular imagery, with two weightings most commonly used to explore the musculo-skeletal pathology of the shoulder: spin-echo T1 and proton-density with fat saturation sequences.
The images obtained were exported to JPEG from DICOM data stored on the PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System).
The images were post processed with Adobe Photoshop (realignment, reduction of size in order to adapt to the electronic format).
The interactive and dynamic contents were added with Adobe Flash.
We used a 3D volume rendering (CT-scan) of the shoulder. A numeric illustration was then added to show bone anatomy, muscles attachments, ligaments and muscle layers of the rotator cuff.
These illustrations allow basic anatomical recalls in anatomy of the shoulder and make it possible to be located more easily on an MRI by using the cross-references.
In this anatomic tool, we added a new kind of images :
The menu “anatomical structures” allows the user to visualize only the chosen types of labels :
The “weightings” menu makes it possible to choose the type of MR sequence to be viewed: spin-echo T1 or proton-density with fat saturation sequences.
The “plans” menu allows the user to choose the visualization of the shoulder in one of the 3 planes of space: axial, coronal or sagittal and to access the illustrations and x-rays.
The left side menu provides cross-references to help for a better orientation in space for the user. This one moreover is facilitated by the medical illustrations.
We have added a new horizontal menu at the bottom, which allows the user to access the MR slices or other images (anatomic pictures and x-rays) more quickly.