Published on Wednesday 09 September 2009
Images and anatomical references
This radio-anatomy module of the spinal column presents 18 conventional radiographs of the spine with captions of 192 anatomical structures.
It is intended particularly for radiologists, electroradiology students, emergency physicians, orthopaedic surgeons and rheumatologists, but may be used as a daily or a teaching aid for any practitioner, physician or student involved in the musculoskeletal pathology of the spine (spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis, vertebral compression, spinal trauma, sciatica...)
Standard radiology of the spine
18 radiographical plates most commonly used in medical practice were selected, covering the whole of the spinal column:
- Radioanatomy of the cervical spine:
- 2 plates of entire spinal column, in front and profile impacts, permit the spinal vertebrae to be numbered and show the physiological curvatures (cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis, sacral kyphosis (sacral)).
- 2 radiographs of the cervical spine (front and profile view) detail the cervical vertebrae: bony structures (vertebral body, uncus, transverse, spinous and articular processes, pedicle...) and the various joints (atlanto-occipital, facet and costovertebral joints.
- Follow two dynamic views of the cervical spine, detailing the curvature of the spine as well as the more visible anatomical structures in profile (spinous process, epiphyseal ring, dens axis, anterior arch of the atlas, posterior tubercle...).
- An impact of three-quarters allows a visualisation of the intervertebral foramen between each cervical vertebra and the upper and lower vertebral clefts.
- The open mouth impact allows the study of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2), with the lateral masses of the atlas, the dens of the axis and atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints.
- The study of the radioanatomy of the thoracic spine is composed of two different standard radiographic plates: the impact from the front (anterior) and profile (posterior). These X-rays to all a visualisation of the vertebral bodies of thoracic vertebrae, the spinous, transverse and articular processes as well as the costovertebral and zygapophysial joints.
- Radiological anatomy of the lumbar spine:
- The anteroposterior radiograph (anterior aspect) shows the vertebral bodies of five lumbar vertebrae, their transverse processes, spinous and upper and lower joints.
- The lateral radiograph (side aspect) of the lumbar spine shows the vertebral bodies and intersomatic spaces, the intervertebral faces of the vertebral bodies and laminae of the vertebral arch. It displays the lumbar intervertebral foramina and pedicles perfectly.
- The three-quarters radiograph (oblique lumbar spine aspect) is particularly useful for identifying the zygapophysial (facet) joints, the pedicles and the superior and inferior articular processes, which form the classic "little dog" radiographic aspect.
- The lumbo-sacral joint is studied by means of the radiograph of the lumbosacral plexus in front and profile views.
- Radiographs of the sacroiliac, sacrum and coccyx joints:
- Oblique radiological aspect of the sacroiliac joints allows the visualisation of the joint space, auricular surface of the hipbone, the lateral part of the sacral ala.
- The front and lateral radiographs of the sacrum show the anterior sacral foramina, the base and the apex of the sacrum, its pelvic and dorsal surfaces, the median sacral crest, the coccyx and the sacro-coccygeal joint.
Standard radiographic visualisation of anatomical structures of the spinal column
The "anatomical structures" menu allows three types of captions to be displayed: vertebrae, bones and joints.
The "illustrations" menu allows you to go directly to the radiographs concerning the spine as a whole, the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, the sacrum and coccyx.
All the structures are captioned based on the Terminologia Anatomica, which is why the "radiological" terms are not present (intersomatic space, posterior wall of the spine...). The anatomical legends of radiographs of the spinal column are available in Latin, French, English, German, Spanish, Japanese and Chinese.
- Acetabulum - Acetabulum
- Ala; Wing of sacrum - Ala ossis sacri
- Anterior arch - Arcus anterior atlantis
- Anterior sacral foramina - Foramina sacralia anteriora
- Anular epiphysis - Epiphysis anularis
- Apex - Apex dentis
- Apex - Apex ossis sacri; Apex ossis sacralis
- Atlantooccipital joint - Articulatio atlantooccipitalis
- Auricular surface - Facies auricularis
- Base of sacrum - Basis ossis sacri
- Basilar part - Pars basilaris
- Coccyx; coccygeal vertebrae [I-IV] - Os coccygis; Coccyx vertebrae coccygeae [I-IV]
- Costovertebral joints - Articulationes costovertebrales
- Dens - Dens axis
- False ribs [VIII-XII] - Costae spuriae [VIII-XII]
- First rib [I] - Costa prima [I]
- Floating ribs [XI-XII] - Costae fluctuantes [XI-XII]
- Hip bone; Coxal bone; Pelvic bone - Os coxae
- Inferior articular process - Processus articularis inferior; Zygapophysis inferior
- Inferior articular surface - Facies articularis inferior
- Inferior vertebral notch - Incisura vertebralis inferior
- Intervertebral foramen - Foramen intervertebrale
- Intervertebral surface - Facies intervertebralis
- Lamina - Lamina arcus vertebrae
- Lateral atlantoaxial joint - Articulatio atlantoaxialis lateralis
- Lateral mass - Massa lateralis atlantis
- Lateral part - Pars lateralis
- Lateral sacral crest - Crista sacralis lateralis
- Lumbosacral joint - Articulatio lumbosacralis
- Median atlantoaxial joint - Articulatio atlantoaxialis mediana
- Median sacral crest - Crista sacralis mediana
- Pedicle - Pediculus arcus vertebrae
- Posterior arch - Arcus posterior atlantis
- Posterior tubercle - Tuberculum posterius
- Promontory - Promontorium
- Sacral canal - Canalis sacralis
- Sacral hiatus - Hiatus sacralis
- Sacral horn - Cornu sacrale
- Sacrococcygeal joint - Articulatio sacrococcygea
- Sacrum [sacral vertebrae I - V] - Os sacrum [vertebrae sacrales I - V]
- Spinous process - Processus spinosus
- Superior articular process - Processus articularis superior; Zygapophysis superior
- Superior articular process - Processus articularis superior
- Superior vertebral notch - Incisura vertebralis superior
- Transverse process - Processus transversus
- True ribs [I-VII] - Costae verae [I-VII]
- Uncus of body; Uncinate process - Uncus corporis; Processus uncinatus
- Vertebra prominens [C VII] - Vertebra prominens [C VII]
- Vertebral body - Corpus vertebrae
- Zygapophysial joints - Articulationes zygapophysiales