This e-Anatomy module concerns the gross anatomy of the digestive system. We have especially focused on the diagrams of the abdominal digestive system (oesophagus is described in the modules on the thorax and oral cavity/pharynx described in ENT modules).
83 anatomical diagrams and histological images are displayed with over 300 labeled anatomical parts.
This digestive anatomy tool is especially designed for students of medicine and paramedical studies.
Anatomical illustrations of the digestive system
All the anatomical illustrations are original and produced by Dr. Antoine Micheau. They were drawn in Photoshop or Illustrator using 3D modelling derived from medical imaging (principally abdominal scan).
The anatomical drawings are organised in a fairly classical manner so as to be easily usable as a standard anatomical atlas. The user navigates between different groups of images using the "Illustrations" tab:
- Digestive system: general diagram showing all the major structures included in this system: mouth, tongue, oral cavity, teeth, buccal glands, throat, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), large intestine (colon, rectum, anal canal and anus), liver, gall bladder and pancreas. It should be noted that the spleen is not part of the digestive system but belongs to the lymphoid system, however it is still covered in this module because of its location close to the various digestive organs.
- Abdominal cavity: illustration showing the principle organs of the abdomen with their projections on the different quadrants of the abdominal wall (upper quadrant, flank, groin, epigastrium, umbilical region and hypogastrium).
- Peritoneal cavity: series of anatomical charts for visualising the architecture and organisation of the abdominal cavity from the superficial to deeper planes, especially to visualise the greater and lesser omenta, the omental bursa, the mesocolons, the mesentery and its root. An axial and a sagittal section allowing a study of the recess of the peritoneal cavity.
- Intestinal tract: 2 illustrations of gross anatomy to introduce the different parts of the digestive tract.
- Stomach: anatomical images of the gastric anatomy, from the serous membrane to the gastric mucosa, with a diagram of the histology of the stomach lining.
- Duodenum: an overall diagram of duodenal anatomy and an illustration of the duodenojejunal flexure with its duodenal recesses.
- Jejunum: diagram of a jejunal loop with its different parietal layers
- Ileum: diagram of an ileal loop similar to the previous diagram of the jejunum, allowing the visualisation of the differences between these two parts of the small intestine (arterial vascularisation with the arteria rectae and anastomotic arches, circular folds, etc....). A histological pattern individualises different histological layers of the jejunum (serosa, subserosa, muscularis, submucosa, mucosa).
- Mesentery: general diagram of the appearance of the mesentery and its root.
- Colon: three diagrams of the face of the colon and rectum, with or without the mesentery of the colon and taenia coli as well as a detailed illustration of the right colonic flexure.
- Cecum: illustration of the cecum and its appendix, front view with its mesenteries and its recesses, and then a diagram of an open cecum (on the body because the ileal papilla is flat and elongated).
- Rectum: coronal section of the rectum with the principal curvatures and stages of the rectum. The rectum will be illustrated in a more detailed fashion in the modules in the pelvic region.
Liver: a first diagram represents the nomenclature of parts, divisions and liver segments. The following diagram summarises the venous, arterial and biliary systems of the liver. Illustrations of the hepatic anatomy next show the different faces of the liver (visceral, diaphragmatic...) and the hepatic pedicle. Hepatic segmentation is then detailed summary in two recapitulative diagrams. Finally photos and diagrams resume liver histology.
- Gallbladder: the different parts of the bile ducts inside and outside the liver are detailed in these three diagrams.
- Pancreas: the first diagram shows the different parts of the pancreatic anatomy in anterior view, then successively: the relationships of the duodenum to the pancreas, the ampulla of Vater (hepatopancreatic ampulla), the pancreas in posterior view with and without retropancreatic vessels.
- Spleen: the splenic anatomy is detailed in anterior and posterior views as well as an anatomical section of the spleen followed a diagram showing splenic histology.
- Arteries: the initial anatomical drawings show the aorta, the venous quadrilateral and the aorto-mesenteric clamp, then the different arteries of the abdomen are detailed (celiac trunk, hepatic artery, splenic artery, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries).
- Veins: the diagrams are focused on the anatomy of the portal system, first with an overall pattern of the portal vein and its branches, then with illustrations of the venous vascularisation of the digestive organs.
- Lymph nodes: we have reviewed the diagrams of the arteries to which the different lymph nodes in the abdomen have been added as their nomenclature is modelled on the underlying arteries.
- Autonomic nervous system: three diagrams reprise the main autonomic nerve structures (sympathetic and parasympathetic) of the digestive system, including the celiac plexus, the mesenteric nerve plexus and enteric plexus.
Captions of the anatomical structures of the digestive system
125 anatomical structures of the digestive system have been labelled. The legends are grouped into subcategories, displayable or maskable as required via the "anatomical structures" tab:
• Small intestine: duodenum, jejunum and ileum
• Large intestine: colon, cecum, rectum, anal canal
• Liver: gross and microscopic anatomy, histology, hepatic segmentation
• Biliary tract: gall bladder, principal bile duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct
• Pancreas: external morphology, pancreatic duct, hepatopancreatic ampulla
• Spleen: gross anatomy, histology
• Peritoneum: parietal and visceral peritoneum, mesenteries, transverse mesocolon, mesentery
• Recesses, pits and folds: omental bursa, paracolic fissures (parietocolic grooves), rectovesical escavation (Douglas)
• Arteries: branches of the abdominal aorta destined for the digestive system (celiac artery, superior and inferior mesenteric arteries)
• Veins: different tributaries of the hepatic portal system vein (splenic vein, superior and inferior mesenteric vein, hepatic portal vein)
• Lymph nodes: celiac lymphatic ganglions, inferior and superior mesenteric veins
• Nerves: nerve plexus and autonomic intestinal nervous system
• Other structures: diaphragm, genital and urinary systems.
Language and terminology for the study of the anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract
We have used the Terminologia Anatomica to caption for all the anatomical structures, with translations into English, French, Japanese, German, Chinese, Portuguese, Russian, Czech and Spanish.