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Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Antoine Micheau, MD, Denis Hoa, MD

Published on Sunday 24 August 2008

SECTION: Anatomy of the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis

Images and anatomical references

We have created an anatomical atlas of the chest and the mediastinum which is an interactive tool for studying the cross-sectional anatomy of the normal thorax based on an enhanced multidetector computed tomography with helical angiography of the thorax (axial plane). Anatomical structures are visible as interactive labelled images.

 

Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

Anatomy of the thorax (lungs and mediastinum) (CT) - interactive atlas of human anatomy using cross-sectional imaging

 

Cross sectional anatomy: CT of the thorax

  • A CT was performed on a healthy subject, with an axial enhanced acquisition with different windows: parenchyma and mediastinum.
  • Data and DICOM images stocked on our PACS (Picture Archiving and Communicating System) were processed and exported as JPEG images.
  • Adobe Flash and Adobe Photoshop allowed us to develop an atlas-based application with suitable functionality and user interface for exploration of the thorax anatomy.
  • Anatomical structures were based on the Terminologia Anatomica.

 

Anatomy atlas - Cross-sectional anatomy : Thorax, Lungs, Mediastinum

Anatomy atlas - Cross-sectional anatomy : Thorax

 

Anatomy of the chest: how to visualize anatomic labels

 

This atlas is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for radiologists and pneumologists.
It provides access to CT images in the axial plane, allowing the user to learn and review the lung anatomy interactively. Anatomical structures are labelled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. User progress may be evaluated with the test mode.
The horizontal menu allows access to several groups of anatomical structures:

 

Bronchopulmonary segments - Thorax (CT) : Superior lobe; Upper lobe Lingula of left lung Middle lobe of right lung Inferior lobe; Lower lobe Oblique fissure Horizontal fissure of right lung

Bronchopulmonary segments - Thorax (CT)

 

  • Pulmonary arteries
  • Pulmonary veins
  • Segmental bronchi
  • Arteries of the mediastinum
  • Veins of the mediastinum
  • Muscles and layers of the thoracic cavity.
  • Bones of the thorax
  • Nerves

 

As the cursor is moved over an anatomic area of the lung parenchyma, the segment is highlighted and labelled: this tool has been chosen to show segmental lung anatomy (international and Ikeda).

The left vertical menu provides graphics of the bronchi, with anatomical schemas based on a three dimensional (3D) model (based on a volume rendering extracted from CT).

 

Bronchopulmonary segments - 3D pictures : Right lung, superior lobe Apical segment [S I] Posterior segment [S II] Anterior segment [S III] Right lung, middle lobe Lateral segment [S IV] Medial segment [S V] Right lung, inferior lobe Superior segment [S VI]

Bronchopulmonary segments - 3D pictures

 

Lungs : Medial basal segment [S VII]Anterior basal segment [S VIII] Lateral basal segment [S IX] Posterior basal segment [S X] Left lung, superior lobe Apicoposterior segment [S I+II] Anterior segment [S III] Superior lingular segment [S IV] Inferior lingular segment [S V]

Lungs

 

 

It also provides a graphic of the regional lymph nodes of the thorax.

 

 

Thoracic lymph nodes : Lateral pericardial nodes Paratracheal nodes Tracheobronchial nodes Superior tracheobronchial nodes Inferior tracheobronchial nodes Bronchopulmonary nodes Intrapulmonary nodes Juxtaoesophageal nodes

Thoracic lymph nodes

 

 

IASLC - Lymph node stations : Thoracic lymph nodes

IASLC - Lymph node stations : Thoracic lymph nodes


Anatomical parts

 

Terminologia Anatomica / Ikeda / BTS

Jackson et Huber

Boyden

  Bronchus Artery Veins Broncho-pulmonar segments Bronchi
RSL B1 A1 V1 S1 Apical B1
  B2 A2 V2 S2 Posterior B3
  B3 A3 V3 S3 Anterior B2
LM B4 A4 V4 S4 lateral B4
  B5 A5 V5 S5 medial B5
RIL B6 A6 V6 S6 Superior B6
  B7 A7 V7 S7 Basal medial B7
  B8 A8 V8 S8 Basal anterior B8
  B9 A9 V9 S9 Basal latera B9
  B10 A10 V10 S10 Basal posterior B10
LSL culmen B1+2 A1+2 V1+2 S1+2 Apico-dorsal B1+3
  B3 A3 V3 S3 anterior B2
LSL lingula B4 A4 V4 S4 Superior B4
  B5 A5 V5 S5 Inferior B5
LIL B6 A6 V6 S6 Superior B6
  B7+8 A7+8 V7+8 S7+8 antero-medial B7+8
  B9 A9 V9 S9 Basal lateral B9
  B10 A10 V10 S10 Basal posterior B10

Anatomy of the lung and broncho-pulmonar segments : anterior and lateral view on 3D colored models

Segmental anatomy of the bronchus and broncho-pulmonar segments (Boyden, Jackson and Huber, BTS) : 3D pictures and illustrations

  • This atlas is a comprehensive and affordable learning tool for medical students and residents and especially for radiologists and pneumologists.
  •  It provides access to CT images in the axial plane, allowing the user to learn and review the lung anatomy interactively.
  • Anatomical structures are labeled, providing an invaluable teaching resource. User progress may be evaluated with the test mode.
  •  The horizontal menu allows access to several groups of anatomical structures:
     Pulmonary arteries
  •  Pulmonray veins
  •  Segmental bronchi
  •  Arteries of the mediastinum
  •  Veins of the mediastinum
  •  Muscles and layers of the thoracic cavity
  •  Bones of the thorax
  •  Nerves
  • As the cursor is moved over an anatomic area of the lung parenchyma, this segment is highlighted and labeled: this tool has been chosen to show segmental lung anatomy (international and Ikeda).
  • The left vertical menu provides graphics of the bronchi, with anatomical schemas based on a three dimensional (3D) model (based on a volume rendering extracted from CT).
  •  It also provides a graphic of the regional lymph nodes of the thorax.

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