Learning objectives

After reading this chapter, you should be able:

  • To present the different fat signal suppression techniques
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of STIR sequences, fat saturation, selective excitation of water
  • Specify the different families of contrast agents
    • Explain their action on relaxation time and contrast
    • List their contraindications and main indications
  • Explain magnetization transfer and how it can improve background suppression

Key points

Contrast agents

Contrast agent Principles Advantages / Applications Contraindications
 
 Adverse effects

 

Gadolinium chelates

 
 T1 reduction +++
 
 T2 reduction
 
Enhanced T1-weighted signal
 
Perfusion imaging
 
Well tolerated
 
 
Allergy, pregnancy
 
Renal/liver failure: Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis
 

 

SPIO.
 

USPIO

 
Superparamagnetic iron oxides: T2* effect
 
SPIO: liver
 
USPIO: ganglion
 
 
 

 

Manganese chelates

 
 T1 effet
 
 Liver and biliary imaging
 
 

 


References

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  2. McRobbie. MRI from picture to proton. 2003:xi, 359 p..
  3. NessAiver. All you really need to know about MRI physics. 1997.
  4. Kastler. Comprendre l'IRM. 2006.
  5. de Kerviler, Leroy-Willig. Fat suppression techniques in MRI: an update. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 1998;52(2):69-75.
  6. Gandhi, Brown. MR contrast agents for liver imaging: what, when, how. Radiographics. 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):1621-36.
  7. Lin and Brown. MR contrast agents: Physical and pharmacologic basics. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 May;25(5):884-99.
  8. Sadowski, Bennett. Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis: Risk Factors and Incidence Estimation. Radiology. 2007 Jan 31.