vet-Anatomy

Anatomy of the male canine abdomen and pelvis on CT imaging

Authors

Antoine Micheau - MD , Denis Hoa - MD , Susanne AEB Boroffka - PhD - dipl. ECVDI

Published on

Tuesday 29 October 2019

Section

Dog

Anatomical parts

Anatomy of the male canine abdomen and pelvis on CT imaging

This module of the vet-Anatomy veterinary atlas concerns the abdomen and pelvis of the dog in CT.
CT images are from a healthy 6-year-old castrated male dog.

In this module of the animal atlas vet-Anatomy is displayed the cross-sectional labeled anatomy of the canine abdominal cavity and the pelvis on a Computed Tomography (CT) and on 3D images of the abdomen of the dog.

CT images are available in 3 different planes (transverse, sagittal and dorsal) with two kinds of contrast (soft tissues/vessels and bones). Additional 3D anatomical images are available on the end of module, for a better understanding of gross anatomy of the dog, displaying 3D volume rendering of bones, splanchnology (liver, spleen, pancreas, digestive tract), urogenital system, arteries, systemic venous system (mainly caudal vena cava and its branches), portal venous system, muscles, and surface anatomy.

834 anatomical parts have been labelled, available in different sections (filters):

  • Body parts
  • Regions
  • Bones
    • Ribs
    • Sternum
    • Vertebral column
    • Bones of pelvic limb
  • Joints
  • Muscles
    • Muscles of back
    • Muscles of thorax
    • Muscles of abdomen
    • Muscles of perineum
    • Muscles of tail
    • Muscles of pelvic limb
  • Fascia
  • Respiratory apparatus
    • Lungs
    • Pulmonary lobes
    • Pleura
  • Digestive system
    • Oesophagus
    • Stomach
    • Small intestine
    • Large intestine
    • Liver
    • Hepatic segmentation
    • Biliary tract
    • Pancreas
    • Spleen
    • Peritoneum
  • Urogenital system
    • Kidney
    • Ureter
    • Urinary bladder
    • Male urethra
  • Male genital organs
  • Perineum
  • Arteries
    • Thoracic aorta
    • Abdominal aorta
    • Internal iliac artery
    • External iliac artery
  • Veins
    • Cranial vena cava
    • Caudal vena cava
    • Lobar hepatic veins
    • Portal vein
    • Lobar portal veins
  • Lymphatic system
    • Lymph nodes
    • Lymphatic trunks and ducts
  • Nerves
    • Spinal nerves
    • Autonomic nervous system

This computed tomography with injection of iodinated contrast agent was performed on a healthy 6-year-old castrated male dog (Labrador Retriever) by Dr. Susanne AEB Boroffka, dipl. ECVDI, PhD (Utrecht, Netherland).

3D Volume Rendering images were created from the same CT dicom data by the Dr. Antoine Micheau, on a GE ADW.

Images displaying, anatomical labelling and anatomical definitions were created by Dr. Antoine Micheau, Radiologist (Montpellier, France) and Dr. Denis Hoa, Radiologist (Montpellier, France).

Terms are labelled using the Latin terms defined in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (Sixth edition - 2018 by ICVGAN). They were translated from latin to english and french by Antoine Micheau - MD, Imaios.

Anatomical notes form the authors :

  • There is no testicle and scrotum, and there are atrophic deferent ducts due to the sequel of castration surgery.
  • Some structures such as nerves, or peritoneal folds are not directly seen in CT, and their path and position are approximated from arteries or other adjacent structures.
  • The hepatic lobar veins and lobar portal veins are not listed in the NAV (and also not in the human terminologia anatomica) but we added these names using the nomenclature of the hepatic segmentation.
  • The canine hepatic segmentation of the dog on CT is an original work from Dr Antoine Micheau :

In dogs the segmentation of the liver is described with four lobes and four sublobes as well as two processes, based on anatomical consideration. This is the nomenclature used on the NAV. 

For some authors, the use of a vascular anatomy of canine hepatic venous system based on the analogies between Couinaud’s segmentation of the human liver and the vascular anatomy of canine liver, could be less confounding and, therefore, more useful for the surgical (and also radiological) approach to this organ. 

In vet-Anatomy, we used the publication of L. Mari and F. Acocella to provide an hepatic segmentation of the dog: the canine liver lobes and human liver segments appear comparable so we use the terminology adapted from the human terminologia anatomica : 

 

Section Division Lobe Conventional nomenclature in the NAV Proposed segment numbering Proposed nomenclature Equivalent segment in human
Left Left Left lateral Lobus hepatis sinister lateralis

II

IIa (dorsal)

IIb (ventral)

Segment II – Left lateral hepatic lobe

Left posterior lateral segment; Segment II

 

Left medial Lobus hepatis sinister medialis III Segment III – Left medial hepatic lobe

Left anterior lateral segment; Segment III

 

Central Quadrate Lobus quadratus IV Segment IV – Quadrate lobe

Left medial segment; Segment IV

 

Right medial Lobus hepatis dexter medialis V Segment V – Right medial hepatic lobe Anterior medial segment; Segment V
Papillary process of caudate lobe Processus papillaris I Segment I – Papillary process

Posterior segment; Caudate lobe; Segment I

 

Right Right Right lateral Lobus hepatis dexter lateralis

VI

VIa (dorsal)

VIb (ventral)

Segment VI – Right lateral hepatic lobe

Anterior lateral segment; Segment VI

 

Caudate process of caudate lobe

Processus caudatus

 

VII Segment VII – Caudate process

Posterior lateral segment; Segment VII

 

     

 

 

 

No segment VIII in dog

 

Posterior medial segment; Segment VIII

 

 

Notes for the hepatic segmentation :

  • In the NAV, the caudate process and papillary process are included in a same lobe, the caudate lobe. But as these two processes differ by a right or left vascularization, they can’t be included in a same lobe in this hepatic segmentation, opposite to the human hepatic segmentation where the caudate lobe is the segment I and include the caudate process and the papillary process.
  • There is no segment VIII in the dog.

 

Hepatic segmentation - Dog - CT

Hepatic segmentation - Dog - CT

 

 

Cross-sectional labeled anatomy of the abdomen and male pelvis of the dog on CT imaging (liver, hepatic segmentation, pancreas, biliary tract, digestive tract, small and large intestine, kidney, bladder, genital organs, peritoneum)

Cross-sectional labeled anatomy of the abdomen and male pelvis of the dog on CT imaging (liver, hepatic segmentation, pancreas, biliary tract, digestive tract, small and large intestine, kidney, bladder, genital organs, peritoneum)

 

 

Dog - Peritoneal cavity: Peritoneum,  Omental bursa, Greater omentum [Epiplon], Mesentery, Lesser omentum

Dog - Peritoneal cavity: Peritoneum, Omental bursa, Greater omentum [Epiplon], Mesentery, Lesser omentum

 

 

Anatomy of the male canine abdomen and pelvis on CT imaging: Alimentar canal, Stomach, Colon

Anatomy of the male canine abdomen and pelvis on CT imaging: Alimentar canal, Stomach, Colon

 

 

Dog - Urinary organs: Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Male urethra

Dog - Urinary organs: Kidney, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Male urethra

 

 

Kidney - Dog - Anatomy atlas

Kidney - Dog - Anatomy atlas

 

 

Dog - Pelvis - Perineum - Anatomy

Dog - Pelvis - Perineum - Anatomy

 

 

Dog - Coxal bone - Penile bone [Baculum]

Dog - Coxal bone - Penile bone [Baculum]

 

 

Dog - Osteology:3D - Bones - Anatomical pictures

Dog - Osteology:3D - Bones - Anatomical pictures

 

 

3D - Anatomy atlas - Dog: Liver, Gallbladder, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

3D - Anatomy atlas - Dog: Liver, Gallbladder, Liver, Pancreas, Spleen

 

 

Dog - Digestive system - 3D - Anatomy: Stomach, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Small intestine, Large intestine, Colon, Rectum

Dog - Digestive system - 3D - Anatomy: Stomach, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Small intestine, Large intestine, Colon, Rectum

 

 

Dog - 3D - Urogenital system: Penis, Penile bone [Baculum], Urinary bladder, Male urethra, Male genital organs

Dog - 3D - Urogenital system: Penis, Penile bone [Baculum], Urinary bladder, Male urethra, Male genital organs

 

 

Dog - Abdominal aorta - Anatomy - 3D: Celiac artery, Splenic artery, Hepatic artery, Cranial mesenteric artery, Caudal gluteal artery, Internal pudendal artery

Dog - Abdominal aorta - Anatomy - 3D: Celiac artery, Splenic artery, Hepatic artery, Cranial mesenteric artery, Caudal gluteal artery, Internal pudendal artery

 

 

Angiology - 3D - Animal: Caudal vena cava -  Dog

Angiology - 3D - Animal: Caudal vena cava - Dog

 

 

Dog - Portal vein - Splenic vein - Cranial mesenteric vein - Lobar portal veins - Liver

Dog - Portal vein - Splenic vein - Cranial mesenteric vein - Lobar portal veins - Liver

 

 

Veterinary anatomy - 3D: Dog - Splanchnology - Abdominal cavity

Veterinary anatomy - 3D: Dog - Splanchnology - Abdominal cavity

 

 

Abdomen and pelvis anatomy of the dog on CT - Anatomy atlas - 3D: Myology - Muscles of abdomen - Muscles of the tail [coccygeal]

Abdomen and pelvis anatomy of the dog on CT - Anatomy atlas - 3D: Myology - Muscles of abdomen - Muscles of the tail [coccygeal]

 

 

Surface anatomy - 3D: Trunk (Dog)

Surface anatomy - 3D: Trunk (Dog)

 

Bibliography

  • Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog, 4th Edition
  • Veterinary Anatomy of Domestic Mammals. Textbook and Colour Atlas. Edited by: Horst Erich König. Veterinarmedizinische Universität Wien, Austria
  • Anatomie comparée des mammifères domestiques: Splanchnologie - Robert Barone
  • Illustrated Veterinary Anatomical Nomenclature. Oskar Schaller, Gheorghe M. Constantinescu. Georg Thieme Verlag, 2007
  • Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria - 6th Edition – 2017
  • Mari L, Acocella F. Vascular anatomy of canine hepatic venous system: a basis for liver surgery. Anat Histol Embryol. 2015 Jun;44(3):212-24. doi:10.1111/ahe.12129. Epub 2014 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 25090952.