The superior or cerebral surface of each great wing forms part of the middle fossa of the skull; it is deeply concave, and presents depressions for the convolutions of the temporal lobe of the brain.
At its anterior and medial part is a circular aperture, the foramen rotundum, for the transmission of the maxillary nerve.
Behind and lateral to this is the foramen ovale, for the transmission of the mandibular nerve, the accessory meningeal artery, and sometimes the lesser superficial petrosal nerve.
Medial to the foramen ovale, a small aperture, the foramen Vesalii, may occasionally be seen opposite the root of the pterygoid process; it opens below near the scaphoid fossa, and transmits a small vein from the cavernous sinus.
Lastly, in the posterior angle, near to and in front of the spine, is a short canal, sometimes double, the foramen spinosum, which transmits the middle meningeal vessels and a recurrent branch from the mandibular nerve.