Origin: The middle 2/4 of the volar surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the humerus.)
Insertion: The base of the distal phalanxof the thumb
Artery: Anterior interosseous artery
Nerve: Anterior interosseous nerve (branch ofmedian nerve) (C8, T1)
Action: Flexion of the thumb
Antagonist: Extensor pollicis longus muscle, Extensor pollicis brevis muscle
The Flexor pollicis longus is situated on the radial side of the forearm, lying in the same plane as the preceding. It arises from the grooved volar surface of the body of the radius, extending from immediately below the tuberosity and oblique line to within a short distance of the Pronator quadratus. It arises also from the adjacent part of the interosseous membrane, and generally by a fleshy slip from the medial border of the coronoid process, or from the medial epicondyle of the humerus. The fibers end in a flattened tendon, which passes beneath the transverse carpal ligament, is then lodged between the lateral head of the Flexor pollicis brevis and the oblique part of the Adductor pollicis, and, entering an osseoaponeurotic canal similar to those for the Flexor tendons of the fingers, is inserted into the base of the distal phalanx of the thumb. The volar interosseous nerve and vessels pass downward on the front of the interosseous membrane between the Flexor pollicis longus and Flexor digitorum profundus.
Variations.—Slips may connect with Flexor sublimis, or Profundus, or Pronator teres. An additional tendon to the index finger is sometimes found.