Origin: Galeal aponeurosis
Insertion: Front of the helix, cranial surface of the pinna
Nerve: Hypoglossal nerve
Action: Changes shape of tongue in mastication and deglutition.
The auricular muscles are the extrinsic and intrinsic mucles of the auricula, which connect it with the skull and scalp and move the auricula as a whole:
The extrinsic auricular muscles are:
- The Auricularis anterior (Attrahens aurem), the smallest of the three, is thin, fan-shaped, and its fibers are pale and indistinct. It arises from the lateral edge of the galea aponeurotica, and its fibers converge to be inserted into a projection on the front of the helix.
- The Auricularis superior (Attolens aurem), the largest of the three, is thin and fan-shaped. Its fibers arise from the galea aponeurotica, and converge to be inserted by a thin, flattened tendon into the upper part of the cranial surface of the auricula.
- The Auricularis posterior (Retrahens aurem) consists of two or three fleshy fasciculi, which arise from the mastoid portion of the temporal bone by short aponeurotic fibers. They are inserted into the lower part of the cranial surface of the concha.
Actions.—In man, these muscles possess very little action: the Auricularis anterior draws the auricula forward and upward; the Auricularis superior slightly raises it; and the Auricularis posterior draws it backward.
The intrinsic auricular muscles are: Helicis major - Antitragicus - Helicis minor - Transversus auriculae - Tragicus - Obliquus auriculae