The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The temporal lobe is located beneath the lateral fissure on both cerebral hemispheres of the mammalian brain. The temporal lobe presents superior, lateral, and inferior surfaces.
- The superior surface forms the lower limit of the lateral fissure and overlaps the insula. On opening out the lateral fissure, three or four gyri will be seen springing from the depth of the hinder end of the fissure, and running obliquely forward and outward on the posterior part of the upper surface of the superior temporal gyrus; these are named the transverse temporal gyri.
- The lateral surface is bounded above by the posterior ramus of the lateral fissure, and by the imaginary line continued backward from it; below, it is limited by the infero-lateral border of the hemisphere. It is divided into superior, middle, and inferior gyri by the superior and middle temporal sulci. The superior temporal sulcus runs from before backward across the temporal lobe, some little distance below, but parallel with, the posterior ramus of the lateral fissure; and hence it is often termed the parallel sulcus. The middle temporal sulcus takes the same direction as the superior, but is situated at a lower level, and is usually subdivided into two or more parts. The superior temporal gyrus lies between the posterior ramus of the lateral fissure and the superior temporal sulcus, and is continuous behind with the supramarginal and angular gyri. The middle temporal gyrus is placed between the superior and middle temporal sulci, and is joined posteriorly with the angular gyrus. The inferior temporal gyrus is placed below the middle temporal sulcus, and is connected behind with the inferior occipital gyrus; it also extends around the infero-lateral border on to the inferior surface of the temporal lobe, where it is limited by the inferior sulcus.
- The inferior surface is concave, and is continuous posteriorly with the tentorial surface of the occipital lobe. It is traversed by the inferior temporal sulcus, which extends from near the occipital pole behind, to within a short distance of the temporal pole in front, but is frequently subdivided by bridging gyri. Lateral to this fissure is the narrow tentorial part of the inferior temporal gyrus, and medial to it the fusiform gyrus, which extends from the occipital to the temporal pole; this gyrus is limited medially by the collateral fissure, which separates it from the lingual gyrus behind and from the hippocampal gyrus in front.