The Brachial Fascia (deep fascia of the arm) is continuous with that covering the Deltoideus (deltoid fascia) and the Pectoralis major (pectoral fascia), by means of which it is attached, above, to the clavicle, acromion, and spine of the scapula; it forms a thin, loose, membranous sheath for the muscles of the arm, and sends septa between them; it is composed of fibers disposed in a circular or spiral direction, and connected together by vertical and oblique fibers.
It differs in thickness at different parts, being thin over the Biceps brachii, but thicker where it covers the Triceps brachii, and over the epicondyles of the humerus: it is strengthened by fibrous aponeuroses, derived from the Pectoralis major and Latissimus dorsi medially, and from the Deltoideus laterally.
On either side it gives off a strong intermuscular septum, which is attached to the corresponding supracondylar ridge and epicondyle of the humerus.
The lateral intermuscular septum extends from the lower part of the crest of the greater tubercle, along the lateral supracondylar ridge, to the lateral epicondyle; it is blended with the tendon of the Deltoideus, gives attachment to the Triceps brachii behind, to the Brachialis, Brachioradialis, and Extensor carpi radialis longus in front, and is perforated by the radial nerve and profunda branch of the branchial artery.
The medial intermuscular septum, thicker than the preceding, extends from the lower part of the crest of the lesser tubercle of the humerus below the Teres major, along the medial supracondylar ridge to the medial epicondyle; it is blended with the tendon of the Coracobrachialis, and affords attachment to the Triceps brachii behind and the Brachialis in front. It is perforated by the ulnar nerve, the superior ulnar collateral artery, and the posterior branch of the inferior ulnar collateral artery.
At the elbow, the deep fascia is attached to the epicondyles of the humerus and the olecranon of the ulna, and is continuous with the deep fascia of the forearm. Just below the middle of the arm, on its medial side, is an oval opening in the deep fascia, which transmits the basilic vein and some lymphatic vessels.