The superior genicular arteries (aa. genu superiores; superior articular arteries), two in number, arise one on either side of the popliteal, and wind around the femur immediately above its condyles to the front of the knee-joint.
The medial superior genicular runs in front of the Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, above the medial head of the Gastrocnemius, and passes beneath the tendon of the Adductor magnus. It divides into two branches, one of which supplies the Vastus medialis, anastomosing with the highest genicular and medial inferior genicular arteries; the other ramifies close to the surface of the femur, supplying it and the knee-joint, and anastomosing with the lateral superior genicular artery. The medial superior genicular artery is frequently of small size, a condition, which is associated with an increase in the size of the highest genicular.
The lateral superior genicular passes above the lateral condyle of the femur, beneath the tendon of the Biceps femoris, and divides into a superficial and a deep branch; the superficial branch supplies the Vastus lateralis, and anastomoses with the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex and the lateral inferior genicular arteries; the deep branch supplies the lower part of the femur and knee-joint, and forms an anastomotic arch across the front of the bone with the highest genicular and the medial inferior genicular arteries